Problem : What are the basic differences between the shoot and the root?

The root is the portion of a plant beneath the soil. It brings in essential water and minerals from the soil and anchors the plant to the substrate. The shoot, on the other hand, includes all aerial plant structures such as stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. It gathers the carbon dioxide and light energy necessary for photosynthesis, provides surfaces for gas exchange, and contains the plant's reproductive organs.

Problem : What are the ingredients and products of photosynthesis? What are organisms that produce their own food through photosynthesis called?

In the process of photosynthesis, the plant converts water, carbon dioxide, and light energy into oxygen, sugars, and more water. Organisms that produce their own organic nutrients are called autotrophs.

Problem : In the life cycle of plants, what is the multicellular diploid stage called?

The sporophyte

Problem : Where are jacket cells located and what is their function?

A layer of jacket cells covers the reproductive organs of terrestrial plants. Their function is to protect the sex organs (and gametes) from drying out in a terrestrial environment.

Problem : How do plants regulate water loss during gas exchange?

The stomata in the epidermis of leaves, through which gas exchange occurs, can open and close to prevent excessive evaporation of water into the environment.