Problem : Tracheophytes are more highly adapted to life on land than bryophytes. What major characteristic separates tracheophytes from bryophytes, and how has this feature given tracheophytes an advantage when it comes to terrestrial life?

Tracheophytes are distinguished from bryophytes by their highly developed vascular systems, which facilitate the transport of water and nutrients to all parts of the plant. This vascularization adaptation has allowed tracheophytes to become more fully terrestrial than bryophytes, which are still dependent upon moist environments for many reproductive and nutritive functions

Problem : What are the two types of vascular tissue found in tracheophytes? List two ways in which these tissues differ from one another.

The two types of vascular tissue are xylem and phloem. Xylem cells are dead at maturity, while phloem cells are living. Xylem carries water and minerals upward from the roots through the plant body. Phloem, on the other hand, carries organic materials (the products of photosynthesis) both up and down the plant.

Problem : What are the differences between monocots and dicots?

The distinctions between monocots and dicots include the following:
1) Monocot embryos have one cotyledon; dicot embryos have two.
2) The veins of monocot leaves are parallel, while those of dicot leaves are arranged in a net-like pattern.
3) The flower parts of monocots occur in multiples of three, while those of dicots occur in multiples of four or five.
4) Most monocots have fibrous roots, while dicots usually have a taproot.
5) In monocots, the vascular tissues are scattered throughout the stem; in dicots, the tissues are arranged in a ring.

Problem : What purpose does an angiosperm ovary serve? What are these ovaries commonly known as?

Angiosperm ovaries are commonly known as fruit. Ovaries, which enclose the seeds (derived from ovules), aid in the dispersal of these seeds (through animals or wind) and keeps them from drying out.

Problem : Describe the mechanism of gymnosperm fertilization.

Fertilization in gymnosperms occurs when pollen grains (male gametophytes) are carried by the wind to the open end of an ovule, which is situated on the surface of a female cone. There, the pollen grain develops an outgrowth called a pollen tube, which eventually penetrates to the egg cell within one of the archegonia. The sperm cells within the pollen tube then vie to fertilize the egg. Once fertilization has occurred, the embryo develops within the female gametophyte, and the ovule becomes the seed.