That which holds together atoms in molecules and ions in lattices.
The direction and magnitude of the charge separation in a bond.
The distance between bonded nuclei.
The amount of energy necessary to break a bond. The energy gives a measure of how hard it is to break a bond.
An electron configuration with a full valence shell.
A mathematical formula whose consequence is that negatively and positively charged particles attract each other and similarly charged species repel each other.
A bond that results from a sharing of electrons between nuclei.
A measure of the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself.
The charge on an atom in a molecule as calculated by the rules outlined in Covalent Bonding, Heading .
A charged species created by the gain or loss of an electron from an atom or neutral molecule.
A bond that results from electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. The cation is positively charged, while the anion is negatively charged.
A regularly repeating three-dimensional array of atoms, molecules, or ions.
A description of a covalent bond whereby electrons are represented by dots and a bond is represented by placing a line between the two atoms in that bond. Only valence electrons are shown in Lewis structures.
A nonbonding pair of electrons.
A chemical species containing a covalent bond.
The three dimensional structure and orientation of the atoms, bonds, and lone pairs in a molecule.
Eight electrons. For atoms other than H, the valence shell is filled with eight electrons. A filled valence gives the molecule a noble gas configuration and renders it stable.
An electron configuration with a partially filled valence shell.
One of several Lewis structures whose average represents an accurate depiction of the molecule not properly represented by one simple Lewis structure.
An electron located in the valence shell.
The orbitals with the highest occupied principle quantum number.
A theory used to predict bonding geometries that states that electron pairs will be distributed about the central atom to minimize electron pair repulsions.