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Author Samuel Beckett
Type of work Drama
Genre Absurdist drama/comedy
Language Originally french; translated into English by Beckett
Time and place written Paris, mid-1950s
Date of First Production London, April 3, 1957
Publisher Grove Press
Narrator No narrator; drama
Climax The climax occurs when Clov finally leaves
Protagonist Hamm; Clov
Antagonist At times Hamm; the environment; death
Setting (time) Modern day
Setting (place) A hole near the sea
Point of view The audience empathizes most with Clov, though we spend the most time with Hamm
Falling action Clov returns as Hamm soliloquizes
Tense Play; present tense
Foreshadowing Clov frequently threatens to leave, and Hamm often tells him to
Tone Absurdly comic, philosophical
Themes Cyclical, Repetitive Nature of Beginnings and Endings; Emptiness and Loneliness; Theatre of the Absurd
Symbols Light and darkness; Youth
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