Landes, D.S. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge UP: 1969

Laski, Harold J. The Rise of European Liberalism. Transaction Publishers: 1996.

Nicolson, Harold. The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity, 1812- 1822. Grove Press: 2000.

Smith, Anthony D. Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism. Routledge: 1998.

Stromberg, Roland. European Intellectual History Since 1789. Prentice Hall: 1993.

Popular pages: Europe (1815-1848)