Military district in Anatolia. From Heraclius onwards, commander
combined administrative and military roles, with a peasant-soldier
Princes set up German monarchs to help in urban administration and
sidestep nobles. Became nobles.
Philip Augustus' agents sent out to monitor local officials.
In Burgundy, earnest monastics convinced William the
Pious of Aquitane to found the Cluny monastery around 910. It
was endowed generously from the start, so that it would not be dependent
on secular rulers. Additional gifts of land or provisions would
not be in return for feudal services, but would be recompensed
by the monks' prayers. The monks received the right to elect their
own abbot, putting the position beyond lay interference. Cluny's
founders tried to eliminate any potentially idle time by instituting
heavy schedules of communal liturgical prayer services, in addition
to fieldwork and manuscript reproduction. Cluniac monks attained
a high level of sustainable piety and discipline throughout the
tenth century and into the eleventh.
Constitution of Melfi
Frederick II's new code of Law for Sicily. The king's
total authority as legislator and adjudicator was underscored.
Nobles saw prerogatives limited, and all major cases were assigned
to royal courts. Sicily was administratively divided into provinces, and
local officials were supervised by the central government. To
encourage trade, customs duties were decreased.
Papal cabinet of sorts, invigorated under Urban II
to help him centrally administrate Church.
Part of the monastic revival movement of the 1100s.
Bernard of Clairvaux was one.
Heretical movement coming first from Anatolia and then Bulgaria.
Manicheans seeing the Catholic Church as the incarnation of the
Devils' rule. Also called Albigensians, focused in Languedoc.
Kingdom of Asturias
Small kingdom in northern Spain. Christian, emerges
Campaign in Eastern Church started by Leo III to end
the use of pictorial representations of Christ, Mary, etc., in
prayer. Repealed and re-enacted throughout eighth and ninth centuries.
Battle in 1071 where Romanus Diogenes and Byzantine
forces were defeated by Seljuk Turks. Opens Anatolia up to Turkic migration
Schism of 1054
Final break between Eastern Greek Orthodox and Western Catholic
955 battle where Otto I defeated Magyars definitively.
Established him as "the Great".
Spurred by Zengi's capture of Edessa. Launched in
1145. Accomplished nothing.
Salah al-Din's defeat of Crusader forces in 1187, leading
to Christian loss of Jerusalem soon after.
Launched in 1189-90 in response to Christian defeat
at Hattin. Barbarossa participated and died. Richard Lionheart
also participated, as did Philip Augustus. Did nothing, but Richard did
capture Acre and received limited access to Jerusalem for pilgrims.
Defeat of Manuel Comnenus by Seljuk Kilij Arlsan.
Full scale military decomposition of Byzantium sets in.
Called after failed Third Crusade, by Innocent III.
Diverted by Venetian and other leaders to sack Constantinople
when the Emperor they installed did not pay the funds or provisions
he had promised. Numerous Latin States sprang up as result.
Battle principally between John of England and Philip
Augustus of France. English defeat. Most Angevin lands return
to French Crown.
John of England forced to give more power to English
barons regarding campaigns, taxes, and general policy, after the excesses
leading up to 1214 and rapacious taxation.
1259 Peace of Paris
St. Louis officially obtains English renunciation of
claims to Angevin lands in France.
Lombard League defeat of Barbarossa, ends his aspirations
to establish dominion in northern Italy towns supported by the Pope.
Las Navas de Tolosa
Defeat of Almohads by Castilian-Aragonese kings. Opens
Iberia to large- scale Christian reconquest, in 1212.