1. Which of the following is a reason the Renaissance happened in Italy as opposed to other areas of Europe?

2. Which of the following best describes the principles of humanism?

3. When did Francesco Petrarch live and write?

4. Which of the following exerted influence on the development of Renaissance thought in the northern Italian city-states?

5. Petrarch's writings demonstrated which of the following?

6. Which city is often called the birthplace of the Renaissance?

7. What was Cosimo de Medici's actual position in Florence?

8. How many gold florins is it estimated were spent by Cosimo de Medici on architecture, scholasticism, and the arts?

9. Who proved the Medici family's greatest enemy?

10. Which of the following industries was the original source of the Medici family's wealth?

11. The population of Rome at the start of the fifteenth century was closest to what proportion of the city's population in the first century?

12. In what year did the Papacy return to Rome?

13. Which of the following popes took the first steps toward rebuilding Rome?

14. Which of the following popes was most well know for the practice of nepotism?

15. In what way was Rome first connected to Renaissance Florence?

16. Rodrigo Borgia became which of the following popes?

17. Which of the following projects was commissioned by Pope Julius II?

18. Which of the following artists is Pope Leo X most well known as a patron of?

19. During the Renaissance, which of the following groups contributed most to the destruction of the buildings of ancient Rome?

20. Which of Pope Leo X's actions would prove to be his greatest error?

21. What was the enfranchised portion of the Venetian public called?

22. Which of the following best describes the government of Venice?

23. Milan's government was determined to the greatest extent by which of the following characteristics?

24. Why did Ludovico Sforza allow French troops to invade Italy?

25. What was the Venetian government's primary concern?

26. In what year did the French first invade Italy?

27. Which of the following was neither a Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle or a Renaissance artist?

28. In what area did Giotto make great advances in painting techniques?

29. True or False? Ghiberti won both of the contests he entered into against Brunelleschi.

30. Which of the following is considered the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance?

31. Artists of the early Renaissance often created art that was ________ Roman Catholicism.

32. In which of the following fields did Leonardo da Vinci not establish himself as a master?

33. At what age did Michaelangelo enter the school for sculptors established by the Medici?

34. What philosophy fascinated Botticelli and informed his work more than any other?

35. Which of the following commissioned the majority of Raphael's work?

36. Which of the following artists was buried in the Pantheon?

37. Which of the following authors was most antagonistic toward the doctrines of the Church?

38. Which of the following had seen the invention of a form of printing long before the time of Gutenberg?

39. What event was most responsible for Niccolo Machiavelli's conviction that Italy needed to be united under a single leader?

40. What was the primary right granted to women in Italy during the Renaissance?

41. How many husbands did Lucrezia Borgia have?

42. In which of the following areas did Isabella d'Este excel and perform?

43. In what capacity did Isabella d'Este affect Mantuan politics to the greatest extent?

44. Which of the following was the position most often taken up by unmarried women in urban areas?

45. Which pope was in the throne at the time of the sack of Rome?

46. Which of the following territories was Charles V not heir to?

47. Who controlled the 'imperial' army that sacked Rome?

48. As of 1530, which nation controlled much of the defeated Italian territory?

49. Which of the following conditions did not contribute to the collapse of the Renaissance?

50. What was Lorenzo de Medici commonly known as?

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