Black Lives Matter.
Support the Equal Justice Initiative.
Created with Sketch.
Created with Sketch.
World War I (1914–1919)
The Road to War
Germany’s Assault on France
The War at Sea
The War in the Air
The War in the Near East
The War of Attrition in Europe
The United States Enters the War
Russia Exits the War
The Collapse of the Central Powers
Suggestions for Further Reading
Suggested Essay Topics
How to Cite This SparkNote
, which you don't seem to have. Please try a different browser.
1. Which country made the first declaration of war?
2. In what city was Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated?
3. At the beginning of World War I, Bosnia-Herzegovina was part of
4. To which other prominent leader was Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany related?
Woodrow Wilson of the United States
Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary
Nicholas II of Russia
Winston Churchill of Britain
5. Germany’s attack upon which country directly provoked Britain to go to war?
6. Germany’s plan for fighting France and Russia was called
The Hindenburg Plan
The Schlieffen Plan
Sturm und Drang
7. What key fortress was the scene of the heaviest fighting during the German invasion of Belgium?
8. Which Russian general lost the Battle of the Masurian Lakes?
9. Which early battle marked the first major German defeat?
10. Which best describes Austria-Hungary’s progress early in the war?
Defeat by Russia; defeat by Serbia
Victory over Russia; defeat by Serbia
Defeat by Russia; victory over Serbia
Victory over Russia; victory over Serbia
11. What event prompted the Ottoman Empire to enter the war?
A British attack on the Dardanelles
A German attack on Russia
A Russian attack on Austria
A British attack on Gallipoli
12. The commander of the German East Asia Squadron was
Otto von Bismarck
Alfred von Tirpitz
Maximilian von Spee
13. The Battle of the Falkland Islands resulted in
Victory for Britain
Victory for Argentina
Victory for Germany
Victory for Turkey
14. Which is generally
true of sea warfare during World War I?
Submarines and mines were a cheap and effective way to threaten battleships
Convoys eventually proved to be the most effective defense against submarines
The British navy dominated the world’s oceans through its aggressive use of submarine warfare
Great sea battles between surface ships were relatively rare during the war
15. Why did Britain need control of the Dardanelles?
To open shipping routes with Russia
To gain access to the Persian Gulf
To cut off German naval bases in the Black Sea
To prevent Russian ships from entering the Baltic Sea
16. Which was a political result of Britain’s invasion of Gallipoli?
Winston Churchill was elected prime minister
The Royal Air Force was formally established
Australia and New Zealand refused any further participation in the war
A major shakeup in the leadership of the Royal Navy ensued
17. What was the initial purpose of Britain’s invasion of Mesopotamia?
To open shipping routes on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
To liberate Kuwait
To seize oil fields along the Persian Gulf
To capture Tehran
18. Which best describes the outcome of Townshend’s campaign in Mesopotamia?
Ten thousand British troops were surrendered after a failed march on Baghdad
Townshend’s army took
Turkish prisoners of war in a single day
The Ottoman Empire lost control of the entire region
Constantinople was cut off from the Turkish mainland
19. How is the western front in World War I best characterized?
A stagnant war fought from trenches, with neither side gaining or losing much ground in spite of huge casualties
One of the most dynamic front lines of the twentieth century
The first war front in history dominated by air power
A mostly inactive front, along which both sides took a primarily defensive stance, resulting in relatively few casualties
20. Italy’s action in the war was primarily against
21. A war of attrition is defined as
A war in which both sides periodically exchange prisoners and then continue fighting
A war that is ended by a single crushing strike
A war that is won by cutting off the enemy’s supply line
A war in which victory is determined not by which side seizes the most territory but by which side loses the most men
22. Which battle lasted for ten months, the longest of the war?
Battle of the Somme
Battle of Messines Ridge
Battle of Verdun
Battle of Passchendaele
Which country joined the war on the side of the Allied Powers in
24. What major change in German policy contributed to the United States entering the war?
An end to diplomatic relations with the United States
The declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare
Economic sanctions against the United States
An anti-British propaganda campaign in the American media, paid for by the German embassy
25. The Zimmermann telegram urged which country to attack the United States?
26. What country first intercepted the Zimmermann telegram?
The United States
27. What was the name of the first U.S. civilian ship to be sunk by a German submarine?
28. On what date did the United States declare war on Germany?
29. Who was the commander of U.S. forces in Europe?
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John J. Pershing
30. Following the declaration of war, U.S. forces
Immediately attacked Germany
Mobilized and deployed to Europe but did not enter combat for many months
Concentrated on defending the U.S. mainland
Went on alert but did not mobilize
What did Germany do in
to hasten Russia’s exit from the war?
Hired mercenaries to assassinate the tsar
Bombed food warehouses in major Russian cities
Helped Russian revolutionaries in exile to get back to Russia
Revealed that the tsar’s German-born wife was spying for the kaiser
32. Which of the following best describes Lenin’s role in the February Revolution?
He was not involved
As a member of the Duma, he put pressure on the tsar to abdicate
He supplied arms to the demonstrators
He planned the revolt
Who ordered the Russian offensive on July
Tsar Nicholas II
34. What was Lenin’s first decree after the Bolshevik Revolution?
An order that the Russian army surrender to Germany
A request to the Central Powers to begin armistice negotiations
A proclamation that Germany must be defeated at all costs
A declaration of peace
35. Which best describes the outcome of Russia’s peace negotiations?
Russia gained territory
Russia lost territory
Russia neither gained nor lost territory
Russian soldiers would have to serve in the German army on the western front
36. How did Russia’s withdrawal affect the Allied forces?
Allied troops were soon to be outnumbered by the Germans
With Russia out of the picture, peace negotiations would become easier
Without Russian help, Serbia fell to Austria-Hungary
France withdrew from Alsace-Lorraine
, the city of Paris suffered repeated attacks from German
Poison gas shells
38. After declaring war, the United States was
Officially part of the Central Powers
At war only with Germany, not with Austria-Hungary
Officially part of the Allied forces
At war only with Austria-Hungary, not with Germany
39. Which of the following was a point of contention between the United States and the French and British?
U.S. commanders refused to allow American troops to serve in French or British regiments
The U.S. did not send any troops to Europe
There were many unpleasant incidents between U.S. soldiers and local civilians
U.S. commanders refused to coordinate their actions with Allied commanders
40. What pandemic disease threatened soldiers and civilians on all sides during the late stages of the war?
41. Which battle was the first major victory for American troops?
42. What country was the first of the Central Powers to surrender?
43. Who assumed power in Germany and led negotiations with the Allies after Wilhelm II lost power?
Max von Baden
Paul von Hindenburg
Otto von Bismarck
Manfred von Richthofen
44. Over which border region did fighting break out between Poland and Ukraine at the end of the war?
45. Which new country was created as a “south Slavic state”?
46. What immediate condition was required of the Ottoman Empire in order to make peace?
Constantinople had to be given back to Greece
All troops had to be withdrawn from Gallipoli
Free shipping had be reopened through the Dardanelles
had to be returned to Germany
47. Where was the initial armistice with Germany negotiated?
In the Reichstag building in Berlin
In a train car near Compiègne, France
At the Vatican
At Versailles, France
48. Austria-Hungary made its armistice
Jointly with Germany
After negotiations with Russia held in Yalta
After negotiations held in Italy
At a formal ceremony at the White House
49. Which is true of Kaiser Wilhelm II?
He abdicated voluntarily following a mutiny in the German navy
Prince Max von Baden announced the kaiser’s abdication without his consent
He committed suicide
He personally signed the armistice agreement
50. The formal peace treaty with Germany
Was signed under the Arc de Triomphe in Paris
Was signed on a ship sailing in neutral waters
Stipulated that Germany must give up its entire northern coastline
Was signed at Versailles
World War I (1914–1919)
Take a Study Break
Every Shakespeare Play Summed Up in a Quote from
Every Book on Your English Syllabus, Summed Up in Marvel Quotes
Character, Summed Up in a Single Sentence
The 7 Most Messed-Up Short Stories We All Had to Read in School
14 Life-Changing Literary Quotes (That Everyone Always Forgets About)
7 Literary Characters Who Should Have Died But Didn't
Pick 7 Movies and We'll Tell You What Book You Should Read While You're Social Distancing