Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
Want 100 or more?
for a customized plan.
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews December 18, 2023
December 11, 2023
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at email@example.com. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.
Throughout the novel Momaday creates parallel between the locations of Walatowa and Los Angeles. One strong parallel element, like the one between Angela and Milly, is the doubling of the priests or spiritual leaders. Father Olguin and Tosamah, the Priest of the Sun, both tell stories of the past, act as examples to follow, and help those around them. They act as the center of social activity from which events in the novel spiral forth.
A recurrent literary device Momaday uses is the flashback. In the novel, flashbacks are often triggered by a place or an object in the landscape, such as when Francisco passes the place called Seytokwa in the novel's first section, "The Longhair." Passing the place causes Francisco to remember the races held there when he was young. Another similar flashback occurs for Abel after he sees an eagle fly overhead and remembers the Eagle Watchers Society he became a part of when he was young. These pervasive flashbacks highlight the inextricable connection between past and present, and emphasize the repetition and handing down of events and traditions through the generations.
The act of running has a significant role in the novel. Both the first and last scenes of the novel portray Abel running the race that Francisco remembers running when he was young. Furthermore, during the festival in Walatowa, clowns run after the bull, and Abel also sees some men run past him while he is hiding in a ditch by the beach in Los Angeles. Descriptions of running are also central to two coming of age events for both Francisco and Abel—Francisco's bear hunt and Abel's return from his eagle hunt. In repeating his grandfather's action of running, Abel signals his recognition of his status as the new torchbearer of his ancestors' traditions, now that his grandfather, mother, and brother have all passed away.
Ace your assignments with our guide to House Made of Dawn!