Pármeno, with his frequent quoting of literature and philosophers to the other characters, is the author’s nod to the Spanish Renaissance’s revitalized reverence for the classical texts of Athens and Rome. Pármeno struggles with the moral and ethical implications of deceiving his master and is often seen grumbling behind Celestina’s back when she’s with Calisto. Pármeno believes in the servant-master relationship, the courtly ideal of honoring one’s master over one’s own life. He explains to Calisto that he has a moral obligation to reveal his reservations about Celestina. But when Calisto repeatedly attacks Pármeno for trying to undermine his relationship with Celestina, Pármeno gets a sore glimpse of reality and becomes embittered about the ways of the world, which no longer values loyalty but shrewd self-preservation. Celestina finally wins Pármeno over by appealing to his lower nature and promising him sex with Areúsa. The anachronistic Pármeno is conquered by the more enterprising and self-preserving characters like Celestina. Pármeno may be “book smart,” but Celestina wins out in the end with her more practical intelligence.