Alan Gratz’s critically acclaimed 2017 historical novel Refugee follows the stories of three child refugees from real international crises: Josef, escaping 1930s Nazi Germany; Isabel, fleeing Cuba in 1994 on a leaky boat; and Mahmoud, bombed out of his home in Aleppo, Syria, in 2015. A New York Times Bestseller, Refugee has won numerous awards and honors, including the American Library Association YALSA Best Fiction for Young Adults award, the Jewish Book Council Award, and the Charlotte Huck Award from the National Council of Teachers of English. 


See a complete list of the characters in Refugee and in-depth analyses of Josef Landau, Isabel Fernandez, and Mahmoud Bishara.

Literary Devices

Here's where you'll find analysis of the literary devices in Refugee, from the major themes to motifs, symbols, and more.


Find the quotes you need to support your essay, or refresh your memory of Refugee.


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