Please wait while we process your payment
If you don't see it, please check your spam folder. Sometimes it can end up there.
Don’t have an account?
Create Your Account
Sign up for your FREE 7-day trial
Already have an account? Log in
Choose Your Plan
$4.99/month + tax
$24.99/year + tax
Save over 50% with a SparkNotes PLUS Annual Plan!
for a group?
Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!
$18.74 /subscription + tax
Subtotal $37.48 + tax
on 2-49 accounts
on 50-99 accounts
Want 100 or more?
for a customized plan.
You'll be billed after your free trial ends.
7-Day Free Trial
Renews October 5, 2023
September 28, 2023
Discounts (applied to next billing)
This is not a valid promo code.
(one code per order)
Annual Plan - Group Discount
SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at email@example.com. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.
For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!
You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.
Members will be prompted to log in or create an account to redeem their group membership.
Thanks for creating a SparkNotes account! Continue to start your free trial.
Your PLUS subscription has expired
*See discount terms and conditions.
Since to be body is just to be extended, Descartes believes that there is no such thing as empty space. What we typically think of as empty space between objects—for instance, the foot of air between the bed and the floor—is just insensible body. That space between the bed and the floor has extension. It is one foot by five feet by six feet. Therefore, it is body.
The only difference between space and the objects we think of as body, is that space has no sensible qualities. We cannot see space, or smell it, or feel it. Other than that, though, it is no different from a car or a bug or a planet.
Since the entire world is filled with body (there is not empty space between bodies) Descartes calls the entire universe a plenum, meaning that it is filled. The idea that space is a plenum leads to many interesting conclusions, such as the vortex theory of planetary motion, the globular theory of light, and the important proof that terrestrial and celestial matter are exactly the same.