1. What are schema?

According to Piaget, schema are mental models that represent the world.

2. Why would a three-year-old think a string is shorter when it is folded than when it is stretched out?

According to Piaget, a three-year-old isn’t capable of conservation. Conservation is the ability to recognize that measurable physical features of objects can remain the same even when objects look different.

3. What are two criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning?

Critics of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning maintain two arguments: (1) people often show reasoning that’s characteristic of more than one level simultaneously, and (2) Kohlberg’s theory is biased toward cultures that value individualism over community.

4. What important contribution did the Harlows’ monkey studies make to research on attachment?

Through their study with monkeys, the Harlows showed that caregivers must provide contact comfort as well as food and warmth to encourage attachment in infants.

5. What is the difference between sex and gender?

Sex refers to a biological distinction between males and females, whereas gender refers to a learned distinction between masculinity and femininity.

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