- Masters and Johnson studied a biased sample of people. The sample included only
people who were both willing and able to perform sexual acts in a laboratory setting.
- Masters and Johnson didn’t pay attention to individual differences. In reality,
people’s sexual responses vary according to factors such as age, amount of sexual experience,
and cultural background.
Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation
Hormones alone cannot cause sexual arousal. Psychological factors are also highly
Erotic stimuli: Both men and women can become sexually aroused by
external and internal erotic stimuli. External erotic stimuli include sexually exciting
material that is read, heard, or seen. Internal erotic stimuli include thoughts, fantasies,
and memories of past sexual experiences. What is considered erotic varies according to the
individual, historical period, and cultural context.
Desires: People have an infinite number of desires that influence the
motivation for sex, including to procreate, to express love, to have physical enjoyment, to
cope with difficult situations and emotions, to validate one’s desirability, and to do what
Cultural context: Having a strong influence on sexual behavior, cultures
inform people about sexual scripts, or implicit rules that allow a person to
judge the appropriate sexual behavior for a given situation. For example, people follow sexual
scripts when deciding whether they should initiate sexual activity or wait to receive a
A culture’s social and economic structure determines the gender roles that men and
women adopt. These gender roles in turn determine people’s attitude toward sexual activity. In
some cultures, for instance, women need marriage to get access to status and wealth. In such
cultures, a woman is less likely to be interested in sex for its own sake, since casual sex can
damage her reputation and reduce her chances of marriage.