Scholars have proposed three different models to explain how bureaucracies
function, summarized in the following chart.
THREE MODELS OF BUREAUCRACY
|Monopolistic Model||Lack of competition||Inefficiency
According to the Weberian model, created by German
sociologist Max Weber, a bureaucracy always displays the following
Hierarchy: A bureaucracy is set up with clear chains
of command so that everyone has a boss. At the top of the organization
is a chief who oversees the entire bureaucracy. Power flows downward.
Specialization: Bureaucrats specialize in one area of
the issue their agency covers. This allows efficiency because the
specialist does what he or she knows best, then passes the matter along
to another specialist.
Division of labor: Each task is broken down into
smaller tasks, and different people work on different parts of the task.
Standard operating procedure (SOP): Also called
formalized rules, SOP informs workers about how to
handle tasks and situations. Everybody always follows the same
procedures to increase efficiency and predictability so that the
organization will produce similar results in similar circumstances. SOP
can sometimes make bureaucracy move slowly because new procedures must
be developed as circumstances change.
The acquisitive model can be distinguished by the