States and political leaders use a variety of political styles to further the interests of the state, including:

  • Nationalism
  • Fascism
  • Fundamentalism

Political scientists debate whether these styles constitute distinct ideologies in and of themselves. On the one hand, these styles are not as well codified or philosophically grounded as the five political ideologies previously discussed (anarchism, absolutism, liberalism, conservatism, and socialism). On the other hand, each has played a key role in shaping events in world history generally and twentieth-century governments specifically. Keep in mind that these styles and the five political ideologies are not mutually exclusive, so a government may be nationalist and liberal or nationalist, fascist, and conservative.


Nationalism, a strong belief that one’s nation is great (and, usually, better than others), also arose during the modern era. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, nationalism emerged as a powerful force that caused a number of revolutions. People began to identify with and take pride in their particular nation-state. The French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars helped spread nationalism throughout Europe because many nations rallied together to defeat Napoleon.

Popular pages: Political Ideologies and Styles