Bertoldo di Giovanni
- (c.1420–1491) The custodian and curator of Lorenzo
de' Medici's art collection, as well as de' Medici's close friend;
Michelangelo's sculpture teacher.
- (1444–1514) The most renowned and accomplished architect
of the High Renaissance before Michelangelo, famous for the Tempietto
and the first designs for St. Peter's.
Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
- (1444–1530) Michelangelo's father, whom he supported
for much of his later life.
- (1475–1564) the pre-eminent artist of the High Renaissance
and the subject of this SparkNote.
painting technique invented by Leonardo da Vinci which employs degrees
of light and dark shades juxtaposed to create the effect of three-dimensional
of the Medici Popes who Michelangelo grew up with; the reigning
Pope during the Sack of Rome in 1527.
- (1490–1547) The marquess of Pescara; Michelangelo's
close friend and the subject of many of his "love" poems.
- (c.1525-c.1574) A minor student of Michelangelo's
and the author of the biography Life of Michelangelo
Council of Trent
- The Catholic Church's committee meetings to discuss
and organize the Counter- Reformation; first convened in 1545, the
Council decided to prohibit the use of nudes in religious art in
- The Catholic Church's attempt to reform in the wake
of the Reformation and the rising popularity of Protestantism.
Leonardo da Vinci
- (1452–1519) The oldest member and father figure of
the High Renaissance; a revolutionary thinker, scientist, inventor,
Important mid-Renaissance sculptor; teacher of Bertoldo, who later
- A member of the court of Lorenzo de'Medici; the principal
philosopher and proponent of Neoplatonism.
Domenico and David Ghirlandaio
- (1449–1494) Two popular Florentine painters in whose
studio Michelangelo briefly served as an apprentice.
- The period from about 1495 to 1527; principally defined
by the refined and extended brand of Renaissance humanist art practiced
by Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Giorgione, and Titian.
Renaissance philosophical stance that held that the Classical age
of Greece and Rome epitomized the highest standards of human cultural
excellence and perfection; also emphasized the independence and sovereignty
of the individual.
Pope who commissioned Michelangelo for his tomb and the Sistine
Ceiling, among other projects.
friend from Michelangelo's childhood; nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici.
leader of the Protestant Reformation; sparked an uproar against
the Catholic Church after posting his "Theses" in Wittenburg in
most affluent and influential family in Florence; great Renaissance
patrons of the arts, they supported Michelangelo as rulers of Florence
and as Popes
Lorenzo de' Medici
- The philosophy that reconciled Classicism and Christianity
during the Renaissance; most actively argued by Marsilio Ficino.
Pope who commissioned the Last Judgment
Campidoglio, among other projects.
sculpture of the dead Christ being
contemplated, by the Virgin Mary or other Biblical figures, after
being taken down from the cross.
reigning Pope when Michelangelo died in 1564 and the Pope who ordered
the repainting of the nudes in the Last Judgment.
One of the foremost Italian painters of the High Renaissance
religious movement that split the Catholic Church and led to the
creation of Protestantism; started by Martin Luther in 1517 in
Wittenburg, Germany, the Reformation quickly split Europe religiously
period that began in Italy and Northern Europe around 1400, marked
by a dramatic resurgence of interest in the arts and sciences and
triggered by a renewed emphasis on the ideas and art of Classical Greece
Giuliano da Sangallo
- (c.1443–1516) Architect who worked on the design
and construction of St. Peter's after Bramante and before Michelangelo.
- Dominican friar who led a puritanical revolt against
Neoplatonism and was burned at the stake for heresy; Michelangelo
met him at the palace of Lorenzo de'Medici
painting technique developed by Leonardo that involves a soft blending
of colors to create the atmospheric effect of a mist or haze.
'90–1576) Venetian High Renaissance painter and admirer of the Last
- (1511–1574) Painter and author of Lives of
published in 1550, which included a biography of