2' deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate
The building blocks of DNA replication. A five-membered, oxygen-containing
ribose sugar ring that has three phosphate groups attached to its 5' carbon and
either an adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine base group attached to its 1'
One class of DNA repair system. Recognizes and removes single nucleotide
mutations that result from unnatural bases.
Refers to the newly synthesized strand of DNA that is copied via the addition of
from one strand of
pre-existing DNA during DNA replication.
The enzyme responsible for separating the two strands of DNA in a helix so that
they can be copied during DNA replication.
The enzyme responsible for sealing together breaks or nicks in a DNA strand.
Responsible for patching together Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand
during DNA replication.
The enzyme responsible for catalyzing the addition of
substrates to DNA both during and
after DNA replication.
The enzyme responsible for initiating synthesis of RNA primers on the lagging
strand during DNA replication.
A term used to describe a collection of different enzymes that work together in
a given process such as DNA replication.
The process in which water is chemically added to a molecule.
In DNA replication, the strand of pre-existing DNA that is oriented in the 5' to
3' direction with respect to the direction of replication on which synthesis is
In DNA replication, the strand of pre-existing DNA that is oriented in the 3' to
5' direction with respect to the direction of replication on which replication
One class of DNA repair system. Recognizes and removes mutations that result
from base-pairing that is not
Short stretches of newly synthesized DNA found on the lagging strand during
Origin of replication
Site of initiation of DNA replication. Short, usually internal stretch in a DNA
helix that opens so that each strand is separate for DNA replication.
In DNA replication, refers to the pre-existing single strand of DNA that is
copied into a new strand of DNA via
A two phosphate-containing molecule. In DNA replication, it is released from a
2' deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate during its addition to a growing, newly
synthesized DNA strand. Its subsequent hydrolysis provides the energy for
the addition reaction.
Term used to describe the junction at which nucleotide substrates are being
added to a growing DNA chain during DNA replication. Its shape resembles a "Y"
where the two branches represent single stranded daughter strands of DNA and
the base represents helical DNA.
Short stretches of ribonucleotides (RNA substrates) found on the lagging
strand during DNA replication. Helps initiate lagging strand replication and
are later removed.
Refers to the fact that after the replication of one DNA helix each of the two
daughter helices that result contain one newly-synthesized and one pre-
existing strand of DNA.
One class of DNA repair system. Recognizes and removes short stretches of DNA
that surround mutations resulting from large adducts on a DNA strand that impede
Single-stranded binding protein
A protein involved in helping to keep strands of DNA that have been separated by
DNA helicase from recoiling in a helix. It works by coating the single
strands in such a way as not to cover the bases, allowing them to remain free
for base pairing.
A form of DNA damage that results from radiation. Adjacent thymines on the same
strand of DNA form a bond that results in a bulky adduct that can impede DNA
A process in which a molecule undergoes an electron rearrangement that results
in a slightly different organization of the same molecule. The two forms of the
same molecule are called "tautomers" of each other.