**Problem : **
If there are only five people in a certain economy, and their weekly paychecks
are $100, $300, $600, $1000, and $1600, what is the cumulative percentage of
income generated by the bottom 60% of wage earners?

The cumulative percentage is the amount of money earned by the bottom three
workers (60% of the workforce), divided by the total income earned by all
workers:

Bottom three income = 100 + 300 + 600 = 1000

Total income = 100 + 300 + 600 + 1000 + 1600 = 3600

Cumulative percentage income earned by bottom 60% = 1000/3600 = 27.8%

**Problem : **
How is the Lorenz curve used to generate a numerical representation of income
inequality?

The Lorenz curve plots out the cumulative percentage of income earned by
segments of the workforce, as compared to a perfectly even income distribution.
By dividing the area between the two curves by the total area under the flat
curve (which represents equal distribution), we generate the Gini coefficient, a
numeric representation of income inequality.

**Problem : **
If the area between an economy's Lorenz curve and the straight-line equal
distribution curve is 2 units, and the area beneath the Lorenz curve is 4 units,
what is the Gini coefficient for this economy?

The Gini coefficient is the area between the Lorenz curve and the equal
distribution curve divided by the entire area underneath the equal distribution
curve. In this case, that would be equal to 2/(2+4) = 0.33

**Problem : **
Why does an economy with a higher Gini coefficient have a less equal income
distribution?

Because the Gini coefficient is directly related to the area between the Lorenz
curve and the equal distribution curve, the larger the Gini coefficient, the
farther the economy deviates from a perfectly equal income distribution.