3. Secret ballots

4. An end to the Rotten Boroughs

5. Allowing poor workers to be elected to the House of Commons

6. Salaries for members of the House of Commons, so any workers elected to that body could afford to serve as a member.

Although it did not pass, the unfazed Chartists started collecting signatures. By 1839 they had a million signatures, but the House of Commons still would not pass the Chartist bill. By 1842, the Chartists reached 3 million signatures, but despite the millions of signatures and the possibility of violence, Parliament continued to vote against the Chartist reforms. After the failure of Chartism, the British labor union movement began to swell in numbers.


The revolutions of 1830 and the Reform Movement of 1832 in Britain provided more political and social power to the disenfranchised but wealthy bourgeoisie. The liberal ideal of the time seemed to be that if you were wealthy, you deserved to vote. In Britain, even after reforms, only an eighth of adult males could vote. In France the percentage was even lower. However, in Britain, the landed aristocrats, though losing power to the manufacturers, could at least stop them from being totally dominant. In England, the workers were be able to play the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie against each other. Thus, no violent revolution was needed in Britain for change to occur. In contrast, France, under Louis Philippe, was so utterly dominated by the bourgeoisie that the laborers had little hope of improving their lot outside of violent rebellion.

Popular pages: Europe (1815-1848)