1846 Beginning of Europe's last major food crisis and famine throughout the Continent.
1848 Karl Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto.
February 24, 1848 Revolution in France; overthrow of the monarchy of King Louis-Philippe; proclamation of the creation of the French Second Republic.
March 1848 Uprisings in some German states; granting of constitutional reforms in Prussia.
March 1848-June 1849 Revolutions in Italy.
April 1848 Revolutions in Vienna, Budapest, and Prague.
May 1848 Frankfurt Assembly meets and proposes a plan for the unification of Germany; Prussian king refuses to take the crown.
December 1848 Louis Napoleon wins presidential election in France.
1853-1856 Crimean War.
1859 Austria declares war on the Kingdom of Sardinia, allied with France.
1859 Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection.
1860 Sardinia annexes provinces in central Italy after plebiscites; France receives Savoy and Nice.
March 3, 1861 Emancipation of Russian serfs.
March 14, 1861 Kingdom of Italy proclaimed with King Victor Immanuel II as king.
1861-1865 American Civil War.
1863 Maximilian crowned emperor of Mexico; Prussia and Austria at war with Denmark over Schleiswig and Holstein.
1866 Seven Weeks' War between Prussia and Austria; Italy acquires Venetia.
1867 Karl Marx publishes Das Kapital.
July-September 1870 Franco-Prussian War ends with capitulation of French Second Empire.
September 20, 1870 Italy annexes Rome.
January 18, 1871 German Empire proclaimed.