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Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary: Backgrounds and Sources; Essays in Criticism. Ed. and trans. Paul de Man. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1965.

Gans, Eric. Madame Bovary: The End of Romance. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1989.

Heath, Stephen. Gustave Flaubert: Madame Bovary. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Sartre, Jean-Paul. The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert, 18211857. Trans. Carol Cosman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Steegmuller, Francis, ed. The Letters of Gustave Flaubert. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.