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• ### Cartesian Product

The set of all possible ordered pairs (a, b) composed of elements taken from the two sets, A and B.

• ### Composition

A function operation symbolized (fog)(x) that is equivalent to f (g(x)).

• ### Defined

A function is defined at a given value of the independent variable if it assigns that input an output; defined means "takes on a value".

• ### Dependent Variable

The output variable of a function; the variable whose value depends on the input, or independent variable.

• ### Domain

The set of all inputs for which a function or relation is defined.

• ### Even Function

A function f is even if f (x) = f (- x).

• ### Function

A relation which assigns exactly one element in its range for each element in its domain.

• ### Horizontal Line Test

The test by which it is shown whether a function is a one-to-one function or not, and therefore whether its inverse is a function.

• ### Independent Variable

The variable of a function which does not depend on the other variable -- it is the input.

• ### Inverse

A relation which assigns a correspondence from the elements of the range to those of the domain. The inverse of a function or relation can be found by interchanging the variables in the function or relation.

• ### Odd Function

A function f is odd if f (x) = - f (- x).

• ### One-to-One Function

A function is one-to-one if each element in its range is paired with exactly one element from its domain.

• ### Periodic Function

A function is periodic if and only if f (x) = f (x + c), for all values x, where c is a constant. A periodic function repeats itself at regular intervals.

• ### Piecewise Function

A function is piecewise if and only if it uses different rules for different parts of its domain.

• ### Range

The set of all outputs of a function or relation.

• ### Relation

A rule that associates the elements of one set with those of another set. A relation can also be thought of as all of the ordered pairs which satisfy the rule.

• ### Undefined

A function is undefined at a given value of its independent variable if for that value, there is no output--this occurs when a particular input creates a situation in which there is division by zero, or an even root of a negative number, for example.

• ### Vertical Line Test

The test by which a relation is either shown to be a function or not. The graph of a function does not intersect with a vertical line more than once.