Ancient Greek philosopher (c. 427-347 BCE), and founder and head of the Academy that Aristotle studied at for twenty years. Nearly all Aristotle’s work can, to some extent, be traced back to Plato's influence, though he also disagreed with much of Plato's thought. In Poetics, discusses his strong disagreements with multiple aspects of Plato’s The Republic, including comments in The Republic regarding communal property.

Phaleas of Chalcedon 

Greek statesman who is believed to have lived in the 4th century BCE. Little is known about Phaleas other than that he was disparaged by Aristotle in Politics for (apparently) having advocated that all citizens in the city-states should the same education and have the same amounts of land holdings.

Hippodamus of Miletus

Greek philosopher, urban planner, and architect who lived about century before than Aristotle. In Politics, Aristotle criticizes Hippodamus for proposing that societies reward those who create things that are useful for the society, because Aristotle believed this would motivate individuals to do good for the selfish reason of their potential rewards rather than for the unselfish reason of benefiting the state.

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