We have already discussed examples of position functions in the previous
section. We now turn our attention to velocity and acceleration
functions in order to understand the role that these quantities play in
describing the motion of objects. We will find that position, velocity, and
acceleration are all tightly interconnected notions.

###
Velocity in One Dimension

In one dimension, *velocity* is almost exactly the same as what we normally
call *speed.* The speed of an object (relative to some fixed
reference frame) is a measure of "how fast" the object is going--and
coincides precisely with the idea of speed that we normally use in reference to
a moving vehicle. Velocity in one-dimension takes into account one additional
piece of information that speed, however, does not: the *direction* of the
moving object. Once a coordinate axis has been chosen for a particular problem,
the *velocity**v* of an object moving at a speed *s* will either be *v* = *s*,
if the object is moving in the positive direction, or *v* = - *s*, if the object is
moving in the opposite (negative) direction.

More explicitly, *the velocity of an object is its change in position per
unit time,* and is hence usually given in units such as m/s (meters per
second) or km/hr (kilometers per hour). The velocity function, *v*(*t*), of an
object will give the object's velocity at each instant in time--just as the
speedometer of a car allows the driver to see how fast he is going. The value
of the function *v* at a particular time *t*_{0} is also known as the
instantaneous velocity of the object at time *t* = *t*_{0}, although the word
"instantaneous" here is a bit redundant and is usually used only to emphasize
the distinction between the velocity of an object at a *particular instant*
and its "average velocity" over a longer time interval. (Those familiar with
elementary calculus will recognize the velocity function as the *time
derivative* of the position function.)

###
Average Velocity and Instantaneous Velocity

Now that we have a better grasp of what velocity is, we can more precisely
define its relationship to position.

###
Average Velocity

We begin by writing down the formula for average velocity. The average
velocity of an object with position function *x*(*t*) over the time interval
(*t*_{0}, *t*_{1}) is given by:

*v*_{avg} =

In other words, the average velocity is the total displacement divided by
the total time. Notice that if a car leaves its garage in the morning, drives
all around town throughout the day, and ends up right back in the same garage at
night, its displacement is 0, meaning its average velocity for the whole day is
also 0.

###
Instantaneous Velocity

As the time intervals get smaller and smaller in the equation for average
velocity, we approach the instantaneous velocity of an object. The formula we
arrive at for the velocity of an object with position function *x*(*t*) at a
particular instant of time *t* is thus:

*v*(

*t*) =

This is, in fact, the formula for the velocity function in terms of the position
function! (In the language of calculus, this is also known as the formula for
the

*derivative of **x* with respect to *t*.) Unfortunately, it is not
feasible, in general, to compute this limit for every single value of t.
However, the position functions we will be dealing with in this SparkNote (and
those you will likely have to deal with in class) have exceptionally simple
forms, and hence it is possible for us to write down their corresponding
velocity functions in terms of a single rule valid for all time. In order to do
this, we will borrow some results from elementary calculus. These results will
also prove useful in our discussion of acceleration.