King of England from 1625 to 1649, when he was deposed by Parliament and beheaded. Charles I was a member of the royal Stuart family and the son of King James I, who ruled from 1603 to 1625. Charles I's two sons would go on to become Kings Charles II and King James II, respectively. His wife was Queen Henrietta Maria.
The son of King Charles I, who later became King Charles II of England at the time of the Restoration in 1660. As heir to his deposed father's throne, Charles Stuart was the central figure of Royalist opposition to Cromwell's government. Many areas of England and Scotland were in favor of Charles's reclaiming the throne, and these Royalist areas remained a threat to the Protectorate regime throughout the 1650s.
Born in 1599, a member of the lesser gentry who later became a leading figure in the English Civil War and in the non-monarchic government that replaced the regime of the beheaded King Charles I. He was Lord Protector of England from 1653 until his death in September 1658.
Nee Bourchier, wife of Oliver Cromwell. Elizabeth's family connections were instrumental to Cromwell's political rise in the 1640s. She bore Cromwell eight children and outlived him by fourteen years, dying in 1672.
Queen of England, wife of King Charles I. Originally from France, Henrietta Maria was a Roman Catholic and was permitted to celebrate private Catholic masses in the royal palace. This enraged many members of Parliament, especially the Puritans. Henrietta Maria was the mother of Kings Charles II and James II, the second of whom practiced Catholicism openly as king.
Cromwell's brother-in-law. Ireton commanded troops in the English Civil War and became a close friend of Cromwell's. He was second-in-command to Cromwell during Cromwell's Irish campaign, and died in Ireland in 1651.
Leader of the Long Parliament who was instrumental in moving the House of Commons along the road of opposition to King Charles I. Cromwell allied himself with Pym during the 1640 and 1641 sessions.
Also a leader of the Long Parliament, along with John Pym.