Bramly, Serge. Leonardo: The Artist and the Man. Sian Reynolds, trans. Penguin: New York, 1994.

Costantino, Maria. Leonardo: Artist, Inventor and Scientist. Crescent Books: New York, 1993.

Freud, Sigmund. Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of his Childhood. A. Tyson, trans. W.W. Norton & Co.: New York, 1964.

Masters, Roger D. Fortune is a River: Leonardo da Vinci and Niccolo Machiavelli's Magnificent Dream to Change the Course of Florentine History. The Free Press: New York, 1998.

Pater, Walter. The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry. A. Phillips, ed. Oxford University Press: London, 1998.

Turner, A. Richard. Inventing Leonardo. Knopf: New York, 1993.

Vasari, Giorgio. Lives of the Artists, Volume 1. George Bull, trans. Penguin: New York, 1965.

Wasserman, Jack. Leonardo. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.: New York, 1984.

Wilde, Oscar. The Critic as Artist. Sun and Moon Press: Los Angeles, 1997.

Popular pages: Leonardo da Vinci