A Farmer Refuted Hamilton published this essay as a follow-up to his
A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress to defend the
Continental Congress in Philadelphia from an anonymous essay signed
by "A. Westchester Farmer."
A Full Vindication of the Measures of the Congress Hamilton wrote A Full Vindication of the Measures
of the CongressIn Answer to A.W. Farmer in 1774 to defend
the American delegates in Philadelphia from the charges of the unknown
author "A.W. Farmer". "Farmer" attacked the men in Philadelphia
for their willingness to threaten Great Britain with economic sanctions.
The following year, Hamilton wrote a follow-up to this essay entitled
A Farmer Refuted.
on the Public Credit Hamilton wrote two Reports on the Public Credit while
serving as Secretary of the Treasury. In these reports, Hamilton
argued that the United States Government should assume the debts
of all the states, and pay interest on the debts owed to the nation's creditors.
Anti-Federalist The Anti-Federalists were those in the government who
did not favor a strong national government and wanted to see more power
go to individual states. Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton were
among the most prominent Anti- Federalists.
Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation was
the first constitution of the people of the United States. It established
a confederation of sovereign states and a national Congress comprised
of representatives from each state. It failed to outline a strong central
government, a defect that prompted Alexander Hamilton to call for
another convention to amend them.
College of New Jersey The College of New Jersey, now known as Princeton University, was
one of the most distinguished colleges in the American colonies
in the 1700s. With the recommendation of the Reverend Hugh Knox,
Hamilton was interviewed by the school's president, John Witherspoon.
When Witherspoon refused to admit Hamilton as a Special Student,
Hamilton decided not to attend the college.
Constitution The Constitution of the United States of America is
the document that established the current American system of government.
It was drafted to correct the mistakes in the previous Articles
Farewell Address Alexander Hamilton helped George Washington write his Farewell
Address to the Union in 1796. Many of the passages in the speech
have a distinctly Hamiltonian flair.
Federalist The Federalists were those who favored a strong national government
over a union of strong state governments. They believed that a
strong central government was the only method to ensure the stability
of the Union. Hamilton was an ardent Federalist.
Federalist Papers The Federalist Papers were written
by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to convince
the American people to ratify the Constitution. Their arguments
were extremely persuasive, and the collected essays are regarded
as one of the most valuable works on American political philosophy.
King's College Hamilton attended King's College as a special student
from 1774 through 1776. The university later changed its name to Columbia
Interpretation Alexander Hamilton and his followers favored a loose interpretation
of the Constitution, which meant they believed that the document
permitted everything that it did not expressly forbid. This contrasted
sharply with Thomas Jefferson's strict interpretation.
Mint Act Hamilton succeeded in convincing Congress to pass the
Mint Act of 1791 to establish a single national currency.
Neutrality Proclamation Alexander Hamilton convinced President George Washington
to issue a Neutrality Proclamation in 1793 that announced that
the United States would not participate in the Napoleonic
Wars in Europe.
On the Subject of Manufactures As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton wrote a report
entitled On the Subject of Manufactures in an
attempt to convince Congress that manufacturing, and not agriculture,
was the future of the nation's economy.
Practical Proceedings in the Supreme Court of New
York Hamilton wrote his Practical Proceedings in
the Supreme Court of New York in 1882 to help him prepare
for his bar exam. The work was used for several decades after its
original publication date as the standard text on New York law.
St. Croix St. Croix is an island in the Caribbean Sea that is
now a part of the United States Virgin Islands. Alexander Hamilton
spent most of his boyhood years on this island.
Interpretation Thomas Jefferson favored a strict interpretation of
the Constitution, which he interpreted as forbidding everything
it did not expressly permit. In contrast, Hamilton favored a loose interpretation.
Tory Tories were those Americans who remained loyal to the
British during the Revolutionary War. Those who remained in the United
States after the war's end were criticized heavily for their disloyalty
to the Union.
Battle of Monmouth
Hamilton led a charge at the Battle of Monmouth. Although
he was not injured, Hamilton had his horse shot out from under him
during the attack.
Battle of Princeton
Hamilton participated in the Battle of Princeton in 1777
as an artillery captain.
Battle of Yorktown
Hamilton achieved his dream for glory when he led a charge
of 400 men against the British at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781.
Lexington and Concord
The Battle at Lexington and Concord was the first major skirmish
in the Revolutionary War against Great Britain.
The Philadelphia Convention was a conference originally
held to amend the Articles of Confederation. Hamilton called the delegates
from each state to the convention after the Annapolis Convention
Rutgers v. Waddington
Rutgers v. Waddington was one of Hamilton's
biggest cases as a New York attorney. Although Hamilton lost the
case, the judge agreed with his argument that the national government
has authority over the state governments.
Daniel Shays, along with other farmers in western Massachusetts,
rebelled against the U.S. Government under the Articles of Confederation.
Although Shays' rebellion did not seriously threaten the Union,
it prompted a revision of the inadequate Articles.
Hamilton stayed with George Washington and the Continental Army
during the bitter winter of 1777 and 1778 at Valley Forge.
When depressed farmers in western Pennsylvania threatened
to march on Philadelphia and possibly secede from the Union, Alexander
Hamilton convinced George Washington to give him command of a task
force of 15,000 troops to fight the rebels. When the insurgents
in the Whiskey Rebellion saw Hamilton and his men, they promptly
ended their revolt.
The XYZ Affair occurred in 1797 when John Jay and two
other diplomats went to Paris to negotiate a peace treaty between
the United States and France. Three unnamed French diplomats demanded
a bribe of $250,000 simply to receive the American delegates. The
XYZ Affair greatly angered the American people.