Antinomianism - · A belief in Massachusetts Bay supported by Anne Hutchinson, which
held that when God intervened to save someone that person became
possessed by the Holy Spirit and therefore ceased to operate of
his or her own free will.
Arminianism - · The belief that a person could choose his or her destiny–therefore in
direct opposition to the Puritan belief of predestination.
Arbella - · The 350-ton flagship of the flotilla that brought Winthrop
and the other settlers over to New England in 1630. Named for Lady Arbella,
wife of Isaac Johnson, the highest-born person in the group.
Body of Liberties - · The body of laws written by Nathaniel Ward, which laid
out the legal code and rights for the Massachusetts Bay Colony,
also known as the Massachusetts Magna Charta.
Boston - · The economic and social capital of the Massachusetts
Charlestown - · The small settlement across the harbor from Boston.
Named for King Charles I.
Church of England - · The Church founded by Henry VIII in 1544 after his
break with the Roman Catholic Church.
General Court - · The governing body of the Massachusetts Bay Colony,
which was composed of the governor, deputy governor, and eight assistants.
Gray's Inn - · One of the most prestigious Inns of Court in London.
It is where Winthrop studied law.
Groton - · The old monastery that John Winthrop's grandfather,
Adam Winthrop bought in 1544.
Jamestown - · The first permanent settlement in the New World in
modern-day Virginia. Two earlier settlements at Roanoke had failed.
Massachusetts Bay Company - · The company that funded the expedition to settle Massachusetts Bay.
It never became profitable.
Model of Christian
Charity - · Sermon delivered by John Winthrop while aboard the
Arbella, which laid out the religious virtues of the new colony.
Pequots - · The tribe of Indians in New England that warred with Massachusetts
Bay in the late 1630s. The entire tribe was killed by 1640.
Pilgrims - · A group of Puritan religious separatists who fled to
Holland from England and eventually settled in Massachusetts in
Plymouth - · The settlement in southern Massachusetts founded by
the Pilgrims in 1620.
Puritanism - · The faith of Winthrop and his fellow settlers, who
repudiated the corruption of the Church of England and the Roman
Catholic Church. It called for the abolition of church hierarchies
as well as the elaborate ceremonies performed by both churches.
Salem - · Small settlement near Boston where Winthrop and his
fellow emigrants originally landed. Later, the settlement hired
Roger Williams much to the consternation of the rest of the colony.
Trinity College - · College within Cambridge University where John Winthrop studied.
His father, Adam Winthrop audited the college's finances for many