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Plant Classification

Summary Tracheophytes
Summary Tracheophytes

The parts of the flower that contribute to reproduction are discussed in Plant Structures ; the process of fertilization is covered in Plant Life Cycle, Fertilization .


Monocots, a class of angiosperms that includes grasses, grains, and spring- flowering bulbs, are named for the presence of a single cotyledon (leaf) during embryonic development. In general, the veins of monocot leaves are parallel, the flower parts occur in multiples of three, and a fibrous root system is present. Bundles of vascular tissue are scattered throughout the stem instead of appearing in a single ring.


Dicots, such as maples, oaks, elms, sunflowers, and roses, originate from embryos with two cotyledons. They are further distinguished from monocots by the network of veins in their leaves, the occurrence of their flower parts in groups of four or five, and the presence of a taproot. The vascular bundles of dicots are arranged in a tubular pattern in the stem.

Figure %: Monocots vs. Dicots