Hoganson, Kristin L. Fighting for American Manhood: How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars. New Haven, CT: Yale UP: 1998.

LaFeber, Walter. The New Empire: An Interpretation of American Expansion 1860-1898. Cornell, NY: Cornell UP: 1967.

May, Ernest. American Imperialism: A Speculative Essay. Chicago: Imprint Publications, 1991.

Traxel, David. 1898: The Birth of the American Century. New York: Vintage Books, 1999.

Williams, William Appleman. The Tragedy of American Diplomacy. New York: W.W. Norton and Co.: 1988.

Popular pages: The Spanish American War (1898-1901)