A group including such luminaries as William James and Mark Twain that argued
against to combat American imperialism. Disliked the American annexation of
Coaling Stations were necessary in the late 19th century so that steamships that
burned coal could refuel en route. A worldwide navy (that could protect
worldwide trade interests) required worldwide coaling stations. The need for
coaling stations was one of the reasons the US annexed several islands during
and after the Spanish American War, especially Hawaii, Guam, and the
1900 Act providing a civil government for Puerto Rico; a main goal of the act
was to prepare Puerto Rico for free trade with the US. It gave most power in
Puerto Rico to US-appointed officials.
A series of Supreme Court cases in 1901, in which the Court ruled that the
Constitution and American laws did not all necessarily apply to colonies.
Instead, Congress would decide which laws applied where, allowing the US to keep
citizenship out of the grasp of the inhabitants of its new territories.
Cuban Nationalists who fought against Spain's colonial regime in Cuba.
An attitude of wildly enthusiastic, often excessive nationalism. Often,
jingoists or jingoes push for war with other countries.
1901 amendment to the Cuban constitution by which the US was allowed certain
concessions, including the right to indefinitely maintain Guantanamo naval base
A group of cavalry volunteers in the US Army who fought in the Spanish-American
War. Although termed the Rough Riders, most of their horses did not arrive in
Cuba, and the Rough Riders actually walked. The group was led by Colonel
Leonard Wood, with Lieutenant-Colonel Theodore Roosevelt also leading a
contingent. The Rough Riders made a heroic charge up San Juan Hill that
cost them heavy casualties.
A resolution by Congress in 1898 promising to grant Cuba independence after the war. The Teller Amendment provided the US with justification for its actions
while allaying fears that the war was simply an imperialist land grab.
American warship sent to patrol Cuban waters at the beginning of 1898. When the
ship mysteriously exploded on February 15, 1898, it gave the US a final reason
to go to war, even though the cause of the explosion is still debated today.
This tariff passed by Congress in 1894 restricted US sugar imports. The tariff
led to an economic downturn in Cuba, and in turn helped to increase the anger of
Cuban natives against colonial Spain.
The type of sensationalist (sometimes fictitious) journalism practiced by
newspapermen such as Hearst and Pulitzer in order to boost circulation.
Battle of Manila
On May 1, 1898, Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet at Manila in a surprise
attack in which not a single American was killed. The Spanish ships were old and
rotting, and were defeated easily by the newer American steel ships.
San Juan Hill
On July 1, 1898, the Rough Riders, supported by two black regiments, charged
this hill. Although the Rough Riders took heavy casualties, the public saw the
charge as a success.
Treaty of Paris
Signed on December 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris officially ended the Spanish-
American War. According to the Treaty, Cuba went free, Guam, Puerto Rico, and
the Philippines were ceded to the US, and the US agreed to pay Spain an
indemnity of $20 million.