The Autobiography of Malcolm X is an autobiography by Malcolm X and Alex Haley that was published in 1965—the same year as Malcolm X’s assassination. It is the result of a collaboration between Malcolm X and journalist and writer Alex Haley. Over a period of several years, Malcolm X told Haley his life story in a series of lengthy interviews. Haley wrote down and arranged the material in the first person, and Malcolm X edited and approved every chapter. The work is considered one of the most important nonfiction books of all time.


Read the detailed chapter-by-chapter Summary & Analysis or the Full Book Summary of The Autobiography of Malcolm X.


See a complete list of the characters in The Autobiography of Malcolm X and in-depth analyses of Malcolm as Malcolm Little, Malcolm as Detroit Red, Malcolm as Satan, Malcolm as Malcolm X, and Malcolm as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.

Literary Devices

Here's where you will find analysis of the key themes, motifs, and symbols in The Autobiography of Malcolm X.


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Deeper Study

Enhance your understanding of The Autobiography of Malcolm X by learning more about Malcolm X and background on the autobiography's publication, as well as mini essays on key topics including how Malcolm X's views on racial identity and on white people change over the course of his life and on the role of women in the autobiography.