Full Title  The Secret Life of Bees

Author Sue Monk Kidd

Type of Work Novel

Genre Bildungsroman (coming-of-age novel)

Language English

Time and Place Written  1997–2001, near Charleston, South Carolina

Date of First Publication  2002

Publisher Viking Penguin

Narrator Fourteen-year-old Lily narrates the novel in retrospect, from the house where she now lives with the Boatwright sisters.

Point of View Lily narrates the novel in the first-person, describing the events she experiences from her unique perspective and retelling the stories others tell her in the same manner.

Tone Lily’s tone resembles the tone a child would effect when narrating a story in his or her diary, except with less self-loathing and more romantic language. Kidd relies on vivid imagery and poetic devices to help elevate the tone.

Tense Past

Setting (Time)  1964

Setting (Place) Sylvan and Tiburon, South Carolina

Protagonist Lily Owens

Major Conflict Motherless Lily lives unhappily with her emotionally detached father, who claims that Lily, as a small child, accidentally killed her mother. When her black maid—and only friend—Rosaleen gets arrested for confronting three racists, Lily decides to break Rosaleen out of jail. Together they run away to a place Lily suspects her mother once spent time.

Rising Action Once the Boatwright sisters take her in, Lily must come to terms with the reality of who her mother actually was. Meanwhile, Lily struggles to understand the importance of the surrogate mothers she has found in Tiburon.

Climax The book has a string of climaxes that occur in rapid succession. First, Lily’s sweetheart, Zach, an African American, gets arrested for being with a group of friends when someone throws a glass bottle at a white man. Immediately after, May Boatwright commits suicide when she hears the news about Zach, and the other two Boatwright sisters (August and June) begin to mourn their loss. At the same time, Lily finally confesses to August the truth about her past, namely that she killed her mother and broke Rosaleen out of jail.

Falling Action Lily confronts her father, T. Ray, and August convinces him that Lily should stay in Tiburon.

Themes The irrationality of racism; the power of female community; the importance of storytelling

Motifs Bees; epigraphs; mothers

Symbols Beehives; photographs; the black Mary

Foreshadowing The novel opens with Lily watching bees fly around her bedroom. These bees foreshadow Lily’s interaction with the Boatwright sisters at August’s bee farm.