Plato (427-347 BCE)

Ancient Greek philosopher whose Nietzsche criticizes in the Preface of Beyond Good and Evil for being too dogmatic and whose ideals of pure spirit and the form of the good he calls "the worst, most durable, and most dangerous of errors so far." Nietzsche takes another swipe at Plato when he refers to Christianity (one of Nietzsche's frequent targets) as "Platonism for 'the people.'"

René Descartes (1596–1650)

French philosopher of the 17th century who is among those Nietzsche criticizes in Chapter 1: On the Perspective of Philosophers. In accusing philosophers of having a prejudiced belief in "immediate certainties," he cites Descartes's assertion that he cannot possibly doubt that he is thinking.

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Leading German philosopher of the 18th century who Nietzsche had once admired, but who is another of the famous philosopher he criticizes in Chapter 1. Nietzsche argues that Kant never gives anything more than circular reasons for believing that there is a faculty capable of synthetic a priori judgments.