Get Annual Plans at a discount when you buy 2 or more!

Price

$24.99$18.74/subscription + tax

Subtotal $37.48 + tax

Save 25%
on 2-49 accounts

Save 30%
on 50-99 accounts

Want 100 or more?
Contact us
for a customized plan.

Your Plan

Payment Details

Payment Details

Payment Summary

SparkNotes Plus

You'll be billed after your free trial ends.

7-Day Free Trial

Not Applicable

Renews February 11, 2023February 4, 2023

Discounts (applied to next billing)

DUE NOW

US $0.00

SNPLUSROCKS20 | 20%Discount

This is not a valid promo code.

Discount Code(one code per order)

SparkNotes Plus subscription is $4.99/month or $24.99/year as selected above. The free trial period is the first 7 days of your subscription. TO CANCEL YOUR SUBSCRIPTION AND AVOID BEING CHARGED, YOU MUST CANCEL BEFORE THE END OF THE FREE TRIAL PERIOD. You may cancel your subscription on your Subscription and Billing page or contact Customer Support at custserv@bn.com. Your subscription will continue automatically once the free trial period is over. Free trial is available to new customers only.

Choose Your Plan

Payment Details

Payment Summary

Your Free Trial Starts Now!

For the next 7 days, you'll have access to awesome PLUS stuff like AP English test prep, No Fear Shakespeare translations and audio, a note-taking tool, personalized dashboard, & much more!

Thank You!

You’ve successfully purchased a group discount. Your group members can use the joining link below to redeem their group membership. You'll also receive an email with the link.

Having established rotational
kinematics,
it seems logical to extend our study of rotational motion to dynamics. Just as
we began our study of Newtonian dynamics by defining a
force, we start our study of rotational dynamics by
defining our analogue to a force, the torque. From here, we will derive a
general expression for the angular
acceleration produced by
a torque, which is
quite similar to Newton's Second
Law. We will also define a new
concept, the moment of inertia of a rigid body.

Definition of a Torque

When we studied translational motion, a given force applied to a given particle
always produced the same result. Because in rotational motion we consider rigid
bodies rather than particles, we cannot make such a general statement about the
effect of an applied force. For example, if the force is applied to the center
of the object, it will not cause the object to rotate. If, however, it is
applied to the edge of a rotating object, it can have quite a large effect on
the rotation of the object. With this aspect of rotational motion in mind, we
define torque to generally describe the effect a force will have on rotational
motion.

Consider point P a distance r away from an axis of rotation, and a force F
applied to P at an angle of θ to the radial direction, as shown below.

If the force is parallel to the radius of the particle (θ = 0), then the
force might cause some translational motion of the particle. But, since the
force has no component acting in the tangential direction, it causes no change
in rotational motion. In addition, if the force is close to the axis of
rotation it will cause less change in the rotation of the body than at a farther
distance. Thus we define the torque (denoted by τ) accordingly:

τ

= Fr sinθ

τ

= r×F

The second equation (τ = r×F) expresses the torque in terms of a
cross product, an important operation
in vector algebra, but not essential for the understanding
of torque. With this vector definition, however, we are able to define the
direction of the torque. The torque (because it is a cross product) must be
perpendicular to both the force applied and the radius of the particle, implying
that it points perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the particle.

This definition can be difficult to grasp conceptually, so we will consider some
examples to clarify. The best example of a torque is the force applied to
opening a door. The easiest way to open the door (in other words, the way to
provide maximum torque) is to grab a point the furthest away from the hinges
(like the handle), and pull perpendicular to the door itself. In this way, we
give a maximum r, and sinθ = 1. The closer to the hinges one pulls, the
more force must be exerted to provide the same torque on the door. In addition,
the angle with which the torque is applied changes the force necessary for a
given torque. The case of pulling perpendicular to the door requires the least
force.

Torque plays the same role in rotational motion as force plays in translational
motion. In fact, we can restate Newton's First
Law to make it apply to
rotational motion:

If the net torque acting on a rigid object is zero, it will rotate with a
constant angular velocity.

Though this statement helps us to gain a conceptual understanding of exactly how
a torque influences rotational motion, we need a rotational analogue to Newton's
Second Law, which will serve as a quantitative basis for rotational dynamics.