In this play, the crown is often personified as if it were a dangerous enemy. Remember how King Henry IV connects his physical illness to the burden of his responsibility, blaming his insomnia on his crown in III.i, with his famous line: "Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown" (III.i.31). Later, Prince Hal talks to the crown in similar terms as it lies on the pillow of his dying father, and he says that he thinks of it as "an enemy / That had before my face murder'd my father" (IV.v.166-7). King Henry IV associates kingship with almost total power, which is why he is afraid that Hal will lead the country to ruin and why Hal vows to use it responsibly (IV.v). Finally, being a king seems to consume a person's entire identity, as when Hal talks about having given up the person he used to be: "I have turn'd away my former self" (V.v.58).
The most obvious father-son relationship in the play is between Prince Hal and his father, King Henry IV. While Henry IV wants to be proud of his son, he is also ashamed of his vulgar behavior and worried about his future: " [H]e, the noble image of my youth, / Is overspread with [weeds]" (IV.iv.55-56). Hal, for his own part, has rejected his father for years, making Falstaff his mentor instead. Falstaff seems to think of Hal as both friend and son, calling him "my sweet boy," and "my heart" (V.v.41-46). But Hal, of course, rejects him in the end, saying, "I know thee not, old man . . . / How ill white hairs becomes a fool and jester!" (V.v.47-8). In the meantime, Hal first reconciles with his dying father and then, after his death, adopts the Lord Chief Justice as a new father figure, telling him "You shall be as a father to my youth" (V.ii.118). Symbolically, the swap of father figures shows that Hal has replaced the influence of anarchy and irresponsibility with that of law and order.
The women in this play have very little real power, but they do have an important influence on the male characters. Among the nobility, only Lady Percy, Hotspur's widow, has any influence; she convinces Northumberland not to aid the rebels. The lower-class women play a much larger role (in admittedly much smaller issues). Both the air-headed Mistress Quickly and the quick-witted Doll Tearsheet feature prominently, especially in scene II.iv. However, their final appearance--being dragged off by the law officers and hoping that Falstaff will come to help them (V.iv)--shows that, despite their influence, they are ultimately at the mercy of the play's male characters.