Tradition versus Change

Through the mysterious figure of Emily Grierson, Faulkner conveys the struggle that comes from trying to maintain tradition in the face of widespread, radical change. Jefferson is at a crossroads, embracing a modern, more commercial future while still perched on the edge of the past, from the faded glory of the Grierson home to the town cemetery where anonymous Civil War soldiers have been laid to rest. Emily herself is a tradition, steadfastly staying the same over the years despite many changes in her community. She is in many ways a mixed blessing. As a living monument to the past, she represents the traditions that people wish to respect and honor; however, she is also a burden and entirely cut off from the outside world, nursing eccentricities that others cannot understand.

Emily lives in a timeless vacuum and world of her own making. Refusing to have metallic numbers affixed to the side of her house when the town receives modern mail service, she is out of touch with the reality that constantly threatens to break through her carefully sealed perimeters. Garages and cotton gins have replaced the grand antebellum homes. The aldermen try to break with the unofficial agreement about taxes once forged between Colonel Sartoris and Emily. This new and younger generation of leaders brings in Homer’s company to pave the sidewalks. Although Jefferson still highly regards traditional notions of honor and reputation, the narrator is critical of the old men in their Confederate uniforms who gather for Emily’s funeral. For them as for her, time is relative. The past is not a faint glimmer but an ever-present, idealized realm. Emily’s macabre bridal chamber is an extreme attempt to stop time and prevent change, although doing so comes at the expense of human life.

The Power of Death

Death hangs over “A Rose for Emily,” from the narrator’s mention of Emily’s death at the beginning of the story through the description of Emily’s death-haunted life to the foundering of tradition in the face of modern changes. In every case, death prevails over every attempt to master it. Emily, a fixture in the community, gives in to death slowly. The narrator compares her to a drowned woman, a bloated and pale figure left too long in the water. In the same description, they refer to her small, spare skeleton—she is practically dead on her feet. Emily stands as an emblem of the Old South, a grand lady whose respectability and charm rapidly decline through the years, much like the outdated sensibilities the Griersons represent. The death of the old social order will prevail, despite many townspeople’s attempts to stay true to the old ways.

Emily attempts to exert power over death by denying the fact of death itself. Her bizarre relationship to the dead bodies of the men she has loved—her necrophilia—is revealed first when her father dies. Unable to admit that he has died, Emily clings to the controlling paternal figure whose denial and control became the only—yet extreme—form of love she knew. She gives up his body only reluctantly. When Homer dies, Emily refuses to acknowledge it once again—although this time, she herself was responsible for bringing about the death. In killing Homer, she was able to keep him near her. However, Homer’s lifelessness rendered him permanently distant. Emily and Homer’s grotesque marriage reveals Emily’s disturbing attempt to fuse life and death. However, death ultimately triumphs.

The Patriarchy

Throughout the story, women are characterized as less-than. The narrator tells us that Emily in particular is held to a certain set of standards by the townspeople, and she is at various points pitied and scorned—for losing her father, for approaching spinsterhood, for loving a man who doesn’t feel the same way. When Colonel Sartoris offers to exempt her from paying taxes, the narrator states that “[o]nly a man of Colonel Sartoris’ generation and thought” could have invented such an arrangement, “and only a woman could have believed it,” characterizing Emily as too foolish to recognize his ruse, and the arrangement as infantilizing. However, Emily does go on to flout generations of male authority by stubbornly insisting they abide by the Colonel’s offer, in this case using an arrangement grounded in patronizing patriarchal authority to her benefit. This underscores the complexity of Emily’s character—she is a character bound by tradition, committed to remaining frozen in the past, emblematic of a bygone era. However, she also pursues Homer Barron, a man beneath her station, romantically, despite the fact that others judge her for it, and largely exists in a world of her own making.

It’s worth noting that while Colonel Sartoris’s brand of misogyny takes the form of protection in regards to Emily, a white woman he feels sorry for, he clearly possesses no such inclination in regards to Black women. That we learn he has forgiven Emily’s taxes at the same moment we learn he introduced an edict making it illegal for Black women in the community to walk the streets without an apron places these differing perspectives in direct contrast. While he may infantilize white women like Emily, he completely dehumanizes Black people in general and Black women in particular, considering them little more than domestic servants, a reflection of the racism inherent in the Old South that Sartoris represents.