- Perhaps Heisenberg's most influential mentor, he headed
the Copenhagen Institute and helped to refine the work of Heisenberg,
among many other young scientists.
- Another of Heisenberg's early mentors, he taught physics
at Göttingen. Later on, he would recognize the matrix patterns
of Heisenberg's work and help to establish quantum mechanics.
- The most famous twentieth-century physicist, who differed
from Heisenberg in two fundamental ways. First, Einstein never
accepted uncertainty and believed that determinism was attainable.
Second, he saw no justification for the separation of science and
politics, and therefore used his international fame to campaign against
- Heisenberg's mother.
- Heisenberg's father.
- A physicist who came of age around the same time
as Heisenberg and would remain a close collaborator throughout
- One of Heisenberg's precursors in quantum theory, he
would later collaborate with Heisenberg in attempts to save German
physics at the onset of the Nazi regime. Planck encouraged Heisenberg
not to resign his position and to instead wait out the Nazi reign
to rebuild Germany after its inevitable defeat.
- He showed how electron
behavior could be understood in terms of waves. Schrödinger's theory yielded
the same mathematical results as Heisenberg's quantum mechanics,
but their pictures of the atom differed fundamentally.
- Heisenberg's wife.
- Head of theoretical physics at Munich, he was Heisenberg's
first mentor in science. Sommerfeld also tried to appoint Heisenberg
as his successor, but was thwarted by Heisenberg's Nazi opponents.
- The Munich professor who nearly failed Heisenberg during
his oral examinations because he failed to demonstrate competence
in experimental physics.