One of the leading centers of physics research, headed
by Niels Bohr. Heisenberg studied here and served as Bohr's assistant, during
which time he did some of his crucial work in formulating quantum
Heisenberg's first attempt at explaining troublesome
phenomena in the atom. While he succeeded in reconciling the Zeeman effect,
in doing so he also discarded other established principles of quantum
The belief, championed most famously by Einstein,
that science would ultimately be able to predict all behavior once
all the forces of nature were understood. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle
directly opposed this, as it undermined the validity of causality.
The quantified study of the inner workings of the atom,
based on the principles of quantum theory.
A theory that addresses the duality of matter and energy,
which have the properties of both particles and waves. Specific
theories such as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle contribute
to this broader scheme.
Formulated by Heisenberg in 1927, this principle
states that the velocity and position of an electron can never
both be exactly determined, since the act of measurement necessarily
disturbs the conditions.
Heisenberg's revision of one of Bohr's quantum postulates.
He recognized that certain relationships that held only in classical mechanics
would have to be replaced. He used this principle to refine the
core model and thereby reconciled many of the current puzzles,
earning himself an invitation to Copenhagen.