Coinage Act An 1834 bill Jackson signs as part of his push to make
gold and silver the dominant specie in America. It made a small
reduction in the value of silver relative to gold to encourage
citizens to turn in their gold to the Mint. However, the bill actually
resulted in the disappearance of much of the remaining silver in
Creeks A large Native American tribe primarily in Georgia
and Alabama. Jackson defeated the tribe during his first military camp
in 1814 at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and imposed on them the
Treaty of Fort Jackson.
The Corrupt Bargain In the spring of 1825, Jackson accused Speaker of the
House Henry Clay of making a "corrupt bargain" with John Quincy Adams,
where Clay would be appointed secretary of state under Adams if
Clay would throw his support behind Adams in the disputed election
Party One of the first political parties founded in America
and headed by Jackson. Served as the main rival to the National
The Hermitage Jackson's plantation in Tennessee. He bought it in
1804 and later made it the military headquarters of the second
district when we served as major general. It burned in 1834, but
the plantation had been fully rebuilt by the time Jackson retired
there in 1837.
Indian Removal Jackson's policy of attempting to remove all Indian
tribes to areas west of the Mississippi, where they could live
forever in safety. He arranged treaties under which the Indians
would trade their land east of the Mississippi and move west under
the "protection" of federal troops. In reality, this policy caused
the deaths of thousands of Indians, and still later, as America continued
to expand westward, the Indians were confined to reservations or
Internal Improvements A controversial issue early in U.S. history, where
the federal government was unsure of whether it could legally spend
money to construct roads, bridges, canals, etc. within a given
state. Jackson generally believed it could not. A faction of the government
that believed it could eventually developed into the National Republican
Maysville Road Bill Jackson vetoed a bill to build a new road in the home
state of Henry Clay, partly because of his dislike of internal improvements
and partly because he refused to help his opponent Clay.
Nashville The fledgling capital of Tennessee, where Jackson lived
for several years. He served as a delegate from the surrounding Davidson
County to the state constitutional convention National Republican
party: In addition to the Democratic Party led by Jackson, one
of the first political parties in America. An outgrowth of the
internal improvements party and headed by Henry Clay, it served
as the Democrats main rival.
National Republican Party A rival party to Jackson's Democratic Party, the National Republican
Party is most closely associated with Henry Clay.
Ordinance of Nullification A bill passed by a special session of the South Carolina
legislature in 1832, declaring the Tariff of 1828 and the Tariff
of 1832 null and void within the state, leading to the Nullification
Second Bank of the United States A national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 for a
twenty-year period. By the time Jackson became President it handled
seventy million dollars a year and controlled about one-fifth of
all of the loans in the country. Jackson swore to the kill the
bank, then led by Nicholas Biddle.
The Seminoles A tribe of Indians in Florida whom Jackson fought against
in 1817 and 1818. Later, when he was President, his administration
spent more than fifteen million dollars fighting a war against
the Indians and trying to throw them out of the state.
Tariff of 1828 A protective tax levied by Jackson supporters and meant
to curry favor with Northern industry leaders. Southerners saw
the tax as an unfair subsidy for Northern manufacturing.
Tariff of 1832 An attempt by Jackson and Congress to remedy the unevenness of
the Tariff of 1828. It would eventually lead to the Nullification
Treaty of Fort Jackson A punitive treaty Jackson imposed on the Creek Indians
in 1814 after defeating the tribe in a series of battles. It stripped
the tribe of much of its land and rights.
Waxhaws Small backwoods area on the North Carolina and South Carolina
border where Jackson grew up.
Whig Party The third major party in the U.S., after the Democratic
party and the National Republican party, the Whigs were an amalgamation
of Jackson opponents: Nullifiers, states righters, and men like
John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The battle in which Jackson defeated the Creek Indians.
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson became a national hero after defeating the British
at New Orleans during the War of 1812–albeit several days after the
signing of a peace treaty in Europe. The battle was one of the most
lopsided victories in American history, where the British lost
over two thousand men and the Americans only a handful.
The biggest crisis of Jackson's Presidency, started by
South Carolina opposition to the tariffs leveled in 1828 and 1832
by Jackson supporters. "Nullifiers" thought that a state could nullify
a federal law within its own borders if it so desired. When South
Carolina, led by John C. Calhoun, announced its intention to nullify
the tariffs in the fall of 1832, it touched off what almost developed
into a civil war, as Jackson massed military resources on the state's
borders. Finally resolved in the spring of 1833 when South Carolina
agreed to a new fairer tariff passed by Congress.
Panic of 1819
Four years of economic depression blamed on actions of
the Second Bank of the United States.