Clark, Ronald W. Lenin: A Biography. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Conquest, Robert. Reflections on a Ravaged Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Palmer, R.R., and Colton, Joel. A History of the Modern World. New York: Knopf, 1984.

Possony, Stefan. Lenin: The Compulsive Revolutionary. Chicago: Regnery, 1964.

Volkogonov, Dmitri. Lenin. New York: The Free Press, 1994.

Popular pages: Vladimir Lenin