- A Bolshevik activist with whom Lenin became close
friends during his years in Western Europe. It is unconfirmed
whether the two had an affair, but her death in 1920 was a great
blow to Lenin.
- A leading Bolshevik, and a member of Lenin's Politburo
in the early '20s. He would be executed by Stalin in 1936.
- A socialist (but not a Marxist), he became the leader
of the Provisional Government in the summer of 1917, and fled to
America after the Bolshevik coup.
- Lenin's wife, and a tireless Bolshevik activist,
she assisted her husband throughout his rise to power.
- A prominent figure within the Social Democrats, he led
the opposition to Lenin's proposal for a party of professional
revolutionaries, and became the leader of the Menshevik faction.
- The 19th-century German intellectual who, in his philosophical
, developed the theory
that bears his name, Marxism.
last Tsar of Russia, executed with his family by the Bolsheviks
- One of the founders of Russian Marxism, he worked
with Lenin on the Marxist newspaper Iskra
early 1900s, but eventually split with Lenin and came to ally himself
with the Mensheviks.
- Born Iosef Vissarionovich Djugashvili, he took the name
"Stalin," meaning steel, around 1912. A committed Bolshevik, he
was part of Lenin's Politburo and a key figure in the Revolution
and Civil War. After Lenin's death, he outmaneuvered his rivals
and made himself master of the Soviet Union, which he ruled until
his death in 1953. (For more information, see theSparkNote on
- A former ally of the Mensheviks, he joined the Bolsheviks
before the Revolution and was responsible for organizing the Red
Army and winning the Civil War. He was one of Lenin's favorites
in the Politburo, but was outmaneuvered by Stalin, exiled in 1929,
and assassinated in Mexico City in 1940 by one of Stalin's agents.
- Lenin's older brother. His arrest and execution
in 1887, for conspiring to assassinate Tsar Alexander III, inspired
Lenin to become a revolutionary.
- Lenin's father, Ulyanov was
a prosperous government employee. During Lenin's childhood, he
worked as an inspector of schools.
- Lenin's mother
- A member of Lenin's Politburo, and a friend and ally
of Kamenev. He would be executed by Stalin in 1936.