Conquest, Robert. Reflections on a Ravaged Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.

Conquest, Robert. Stalin: Breaker of Nations. New York: Penguin, 1991.

Deutscher, Isaac. Stalin: A Political Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

McNeal, Robert. Stalin: Man and Ruler. New York: NYU Press, 1988.

Palmer, R.R., and Colton, Joel. A History of the Modern World. New York: Knopf, 1984.

Popular pages: Joseph Stalin