- Emilio Aguinaldo led the Filipino resistance movement
against the Spanish Empire before and during the Spanish-American
War in 1898 and 1899. When the U.S. annexed the Philippine Islands
after the war, Aguinaldo turned and fought against U.S. troops. His
war lasted for several years until his capture in 1902.
Bacon served after Elihu Root as President Roosevelt's Secretary
of State in 1909. The two men met as students at Harvard College
and remained lifelong friends.
William Jennings Bryan
- William Jennings Bryan ran for President four times
in his lifetime and was defeated four times. He ran on the Populist
Party ticket and the Democratic ticket between 1892 and 1912. He
advocated printing more money to help impoverished farmers and eliminating
the gold standard.
- Grover Cleveland was the
twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States.
He served his first term as President from 1885–1889 and his second
term from 1893–1897. While serving in the New York State Assembly,
Roosevelt worked closely on reforming the New York Civil Service
with Cleveland who was then Governor of New York. When Cleveland,
a Democrat, defeated Republican Benjamin Harrison for the Presidency
in 1892, Cleveland kept Roosevelt as head of the U.S. Civil Service Commission.
Leon Czolgosz assassinated President William McKinley on September
6, 1901, in Buffalo, New York.
- Admiral Dewey commanded the American Naval fleet
in Asia during the Spanish-American War. On the morning of May 1,
1898, he sailed quietly into Manila Harbor and launched a surprise
attack against the Spanish fleet in the Philippine Islands. He
won the battle within hours.
- Mark Hanna coordinated the William McKinley's Presidential
campaigns of 1896 and 1900, and coached President Roosevelt during
his first few months in office.
- Benjamin Harrison served
as the twenty-third President of the United States from 1889–1893. Grover
Cleveland served as President during both the term before and the
term after Harrison. A Republican, Harrison appointed Roosevelt
the head of the U.S. Civil Service Commission in 1889, to reward Roosevelt
for his services and dedication during his campaign for President.
Hay served as President William McKinley's Secretary of State. An
imperialist, Hay was responsible for creating the Open Door Policy
William Randolph Hearst
- William Randolph Heart was the editor of the popular
newspaper The New York World
in the late 1890s.
While editor, he competed fiercely with rival New York newspapers
for sales. His sensationalistic articles on the atrocities in Cuba
helped lead the nation into the Spanish-American War of 1898 and
1899. Many give him credit for actually starting the war in his quest
to sell newspapers. He sent the famous line, "You furnish the pictures,
and I'll furnish the war!" to his artist Frederic Remington in
Knox served as President Roosevelt's Attorney General, and was
responsible for filing the government lawsuits against Northern
Securities, Standard Oil, and forty-one other trusts. Knox also served
as Secretary of War under President William Howard Taft.
- Henry Cabot Lodge was
Roosevelt's closest personal friend and political ally. The two
met while Roosevelt was a student and Lodge a professor at Harvard.
Lodge served in the Senate for many years and acted as Roosevelt's
voice in Congress.
- Alice Roosevelt
Longworth was the daughter of Roosevelt and his first wife, Alice Hathaway
Lee Roosevelt. She was born on February 12, 1884. She lived with
Roosevelt's sister while her father was away in Dakota Territory,
and then returned to live with him and her stepmother Edith Roosevelt.
Young Alice and her father disagreed on many things, and there
was often tension between the two. In 1906 she married Congressman
Nicholas Longworth at an extravagant White House wedding.
- Nicholas Longworth was a Republican Congressman from
the First District of Ohio. He married young Princess Alice on
February 17, 1906, in a huge White House wedding.
Alfred T. Mahan
- Captain Mahan published
a book in 1890 entitled The Influence of Sea Power Upon History,
in which he argued that naval power is essential
to develop a strong nation. He also argued that strong nations should
seek friendly ports, colonies, and territories abroad to use as
naval bases and as commercial outlets. Mahan was an ardent imperialist.
Roosevelt strongly believed Mahan's ideas.
- William McKinley was the
twenty-fifth President of the United States and served from 1897–1901.
He was elected President twice but served only six months of his
second term. On September 6, 1901, he was assassinated by anarchist
Leon Czolgosz. After McKinley's death, his Vice President Roosevelt
was sworn in as President. McKinley was President during the Spanish-American
War of 1898 and 1899, and was known for being an imperialist.
Monroe was the fifth President of the United States. He is responsible
for authoring the Monroe Doctrine.
Marquis de Mores
- The Marquis de Mores was a French nobleman and adventurer
who came to Dakota Territory shortly before Roosevelt himself moved
to Elkhorn Ranch. The Marquis founded the town closest to Roosevelt's ranch
and named it Medora after his wife. During Roosevelt's cattle ranching
days, the two nearly dueled over rights to cattle land.
- J.P. Morgan was a Wall Street banker and the wealthiest
man in the world during Roosevelt's Presidency, worth over one
billion dollars. He was the embodiment of the plutocracy. He organized
the creation of Northern Securities and helped end the Coal Strike
and avert a depression during the Panic of 1907.
- Muckrakers were writers in the late 1800s and early 1900s
who exposed government and social misdeeds and injustices. In a
1906 speech, President Roosevelt made an allusion to the novel Pilgrim's
when he compared these expose writers to the
man with the muckrake who could only look downward. From then on,
the name stuck. Prominent muckrakers included Upton Sinclair, Ida
Tarbell, and Lincoln Steffens.
- Thomas Platt, or Boss Tom Platt,
served as a United States Senator from New York in the 1890s and
early 1900s, and ran the Republican political machine. In 1898
he supported and helped elect Roosevelt as Governor of New York.
When Roosevelt defied the machine with his reformist ideas, Platt
nominated him for Vice President of the United States in the election
of 1900, hoping Roosevelt would be elected so that he would leave
Hathaway Lee Roosevelt
- Alice Hathaway
Lee was Roosevelt's first wife. The two met during Teddy's junior
year at Harvard and married two years later on his twenty-second
birthday, October 27, 1880. The two lived happily in New York City
for three years while Roosevelt served in the New York State Assembly.
On February 12, 1884, Alice gave birth to their first and only
child, Alice Roosevelt. Two days later, the elder Alice died unexpectedly
from kidney failure. For the rest of his life, Theodore refused
to speak about his first wife.
- Archibald Roosevelt was
born in April of 1894, and was Theodore's and Edith Roosevelt's fourth
child. While growing up in the White House, he was a very active
member of the White House Gang and loved to play practical jokes
with his brother Quentin.
- Edith Carrow Roosevelt
was Roosevelt's second wife. The two married on December, 2, 1886,
in London. Although she was Teddy's second wife, she was one of
his first friends. The two had been childhood sweethearts and had
exchanged visits and letters for most of their lives until Teddy
entered Harvard. The two had five children of their own–Ted, Kermit,
Ethel, Archie, and Quentin–cared for her stepdaughter Alice Roosevelt
as if she were her own child.
- Ethel Roosevelt was Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- Franklin D. Roosevelt was a distant cousin of Roosevelt
and his family and a member of the upper Washington D.C. social
circles during Teddy Roosevelt's Presidency. He later became President
of the United States.
- Born in Autumn of 1889, Kermit Roosevelt was the
second child of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt. In 1914, he traveled
on his father's expedition to the Amazon basin.
Martha Bulloch Roosevelt
- Martha Bulloch Roosevelt was President Roosevelt's
mother. She came from the prominent Georgian Bulloch family that
originally settled in the United States from Scotland.
- Quentin Roosevelt was born in November of 1887 and
was the last of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt's children. Growing
up in the White House, he and his brother Archie Roosevelt were
notorious for their love of adventure and practical jokes. He served as
a combat pilot during World War I and died on July 14, 1918, when
his plane was shot down behind enemy lines. His death broke his
Theodore Roosevelt, Sr.
- Theodore Roosevelt, Sr., was President Roosevelt's
father. Father and son were inseparable as young Teedie grew up.
He encouraged his son to build his body in order to develop his
mind. He also instilled in his son a strong sense of morals that
would stay with him for the rest of his life. President Roosevelt
claimed his father was the greatest man he had ever known and was
crushed when he died during his sophomore year at Harvard.
Theodore Roosevelt III
- Theodore Roosevelt III was President Roosevelt's
and his second wife Edith Roosevelt's first child together. Ted,
as he was often called, was born at Sagamore Hill in September
of 1887. He fought during World War I as a field commander; helped
organize the American Legion; and, as his father had before him, served
in the New York State Assembly and as Assistant Secretary of the
Navy. He also served as Governor of Puerto Rico from 1929 to 1932.
He died while commanding an infantry regiment in France during World
Root was President McKinley's Secretary of War in 1899 and Roosevelt's
Secretary of State until 1909 when he was appointed to the U.S.
Senate. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912.
Rough Riders, led by Colonels Theodore Roosevelt and Leonard Wood,
were the most colorful Army regiment in the history of the United
States. Recruited to fight the Spanish Empire in the 1898–1899
Spanish-American War, the Rough Riders were a motley mix of one
thousand volunteers. The came from all walks of life; some were
college boys and the sons of wealthy businessmen, others were gamblers,
cowboys, and even outlaws. On July 1, 1898, the Rough Riders helped
capture Santiago, Cuba in the Battle of San Juan Hill. The regiment
took more casualties than any other fighting unit in the war.
- Admiral Sampson led the U.S. Naval forces in the
siege on Santiago, Cuba in July 1898, during the Spanish-American
War. Much like his colleague Admiral Dewey had done in the Philippine
Islands, Sampson defeated the Spanish forces within hours.
Sinclair was a muckraker in the late 1800s and early 1900s. His
1906 novel The Jungle
depicted the horrors of
the Chicago stockyards; it was so disturbing that Roosevelt ordered
an immediate investigation after he read the book.
- William Taft was a loyal supporter
of Roosevelt during his Presidency, and served as Roosevelt's Governor
of the Philippine Islands and as Secretary of War. He and Roosevelt
were steadfast friends. When Teddy refused to run for a third presidential
term in 1908, he nominated Taft as the Republican candidate. Taft
was elected in 1908, defeating William Jennings Bryan. After Roosevelt
returned from Europe and Africa, the two men had a political disagreement
that soon turned into a bitter personal hatred. They ran against
each other in the election of 1912, Taft as the Republican candidate
and Roosevelt as the Bull Moose Party candidate. They split the
Republican Party, allowing Woodrow Wilson to become President.
Taft and Roosevelt later reconciled their differences. Taft also
served as a U.S. Supreme Court justice.
Booker T. Washington
- A self-educated former slave, Booker T. Washington
rose up from poverty to distinguish himself as one of the nation's
most prominent educators. He founded the Tuskeegee Institute.
White House Gang
- The White House Gang was a colloquial name for President
Roosevelt's children and their friends. The group enjoyed pulling
pranks on the President and his guests.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
- Kaiser Wilhelm II, was the German Emperor during
Roosevelt's Presidency. The two men were at first friends, but
as World War I approached, their friendship died. Many consider
the Kaiser's foreign policies to be at least partly responsible
for World War I.
- A former professor of political economy and jurisprudence
at Bryn Mawr, Wesleyan, and Princeton Universities and former president
of Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson rose to fame as an eloquent
yet dynamic speaker. He became Governor of New Jersey in 1910 and
established himself as a Progressive with his reformist ideas.
A Democrat, he ran against Roosevelt and William Howard Taft in
the election of 1912 and defeated both men because they had split
the Republican Party. He was elected President again in 1916, and
served as Commander in Chief during World War I.