of the Naval War of 1812 Published in 1882, A History of the Naval War
of 1812 was Roosevelt's first book. The book was highly
praised for its detail and style and remained the definitive book
on the subject for many decades.
The Alabama The Alabama was a Confederate Navy
ship that destroyed many Union vessels during the American Civil
War. Roosevelt's uncle James Bulloch served as an admiral in the
Confederate Navy and was responsible for building the ship in Great
Britain. Roosevelt's other uncle, Irvine Bulloch, served as a midshipman
aboard the same vessel.
Alaska A disagreement between Great Britain and the United
States over the boundary between Alaska and British Columbia climaxed
in 1903. Great Britain proposed to settle the dispute via impartial arbitration,
but President Roosevelt refused; however, he eventually consented.
The panel of judges sides with the United States.
Annex When one country annexes another country or territory,
it makes it part of its own. After the Spanish-American War, the
United States annexed the Philippines and Puerto Rico, making them U.S.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy Appointed by President William McKinley during his
first term in office, Roosevelt served as the Assistant Secretary
of the Navy in the Department of the Navy from 1897 to 1898. During
his time as the Assistant Secretary, Roosevelt prepared the U.S. Navy
for war with the Spanish Empire. In 1898 he sent orders to Admiral
Dewey in Asia to make preparations for an attack on the Philippine
Badlands The Badlands is an area of eastern Montana and western
North and South Dakota. The area is dry and has very rugged topography.
Roosevelt vacationed in the Badlands to hunt buffalo in 1883. From
1884–1887, he lived at Elkhorn Ranch in Dakota Territory.
Big Stick Diplomacy Roosevelt's forceful style of foreign relations was
often called Big Stick Diplomacy, which came from his favorite
proverb "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far."
In his dealings with other countries, Roosevelt would pressure
other countries into doing what he wanted them to do. The Roosevelt
Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine is a prime example of Big Stick
Cuba Cuba, an island approximately ninety miles south of
Florida, was once a territory of the Spanish Empire. The United
States liberated Cuba in the Spanish-American War in 1898 and 1899. Several
key battles were fought on Cuba: the Battle of San Juan Hill and
the Battle of Santiago Harbor led by Admiral Sampson. Once liberated,
the Cubans established their own government; however, the Platt
Amendment restricted Cuba from total sovereignty.
Dakota Territory Dakota Territory refers to the area now known as the
states of North and South Dakota. These areas had not yet attained statehood
when Roosevelt lived there from 1884–1887. Roosevelt owned the
Elkhorn Ranch in the territory and enjoyed hunting buffalo, antelope,
and grizzly bears.
Elkhorn Ranch Located near the town of Medora and on the banks of
the Little Missouri River, the Elkhorn Ranch was Roosevelt's cattle
ranch in the Dakota Territory from 1884–1887. Roosevelt quit the cattle
ranching business after a cold spell in 1886 killed most of the
cattle and made Medora a ghost town.
Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a government agency
that is responsible for ensuring that food and medicine producers
follow guidelines and safety regulations. The FDA was created during
Roosevelt's Presidency after Upton Sinclair published The
Jungle, his novel about working conditions in the Chicago
meatpacking industry, in 1906.
Grand Old Party The Republican Party.
Hepburn Bill Congress passed the Hepburn Bill in 1906 to regulate
rebate rates, a mechanism trusts often used to create a monopoly
and destroy competition. The bill gave the Interstate Commerce Commission
to set maximum rebate rates.
of a Ranchman Roosevelt wrote the book Hunting Trips of a
Ranchman while living in Dakota Territory. The book was
published in June of 1885 and is mostly an autobiographical account
of Roosevelt's hunting adventures in the West.
Imperialism Imperialism is the idea that powerful nations must
have colonies throughout the world; oftentimes these colonies were
once sovereign countries, but lost their independence in wars with
the imperialist states. Powerful nations seek colonies to expand
their military or commercial interests. The United States was considered
an imperialist nation during the 1890s and first decade of the 1900s
under Presidents William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt.
Monopoly A business is said to have a monopoly when it is the
only supplier of a certain good. Many large companies called trusts
in the late 1800s and early 1900s attempted to secure monopolies
on their products. Although having a monopoly on a product was
not illegal, securing monopolies via unfair business practices and
driving out competition was illegal under the 1890 Sherman Act.
Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine declared that European powers have
no authority in the Western Hemisphere and must not involve themselves
in the affairs of North and South American countries. The doctrine
also claimed that the United States had the right to intervene
anywhere in the hemisphere to ensure its security. The Monroe Doctrine
was named for President James Monroe, who declared the doctrine
in the early 1820s.
Morocco Morocco is a country in North Africa that was a French
colony during Roosevelt's Presidency. In 1905, President Roosevelt prevented
a European war when he secretly mediated a dispute over Morocco
amongst France, England, and Germany.
Morton Hall Morton Hall was one of the headquarters of the Republican political
machine in New York City in the late 1800s. Roosevelt became interested
in politics in the 1880s after attending political meetings in
National Forest Service The National Forest Service was created during Roosevelt's Presidency
to protect and help conserve the National Forests and National
Parks in the United States. The service's creation is one example
of Roosevelt's policies concerning conservation.
New York City Police Commissioner The New York City Police Commissioner is the head of
the New York Police Department. Roosevelt served as commissioner from
1895 to 1897.
New York State Assembly The New York State Assembly is New York State's legislative branch
of government. Roosevelt served three years (each term lasting
one year) in the Assembly from 1882–1884.
Nobel Peace Prize President Roosevelt became the first American to receive
the Nobel Peace Prize when he successfully negotiated a peace treaty between
the Russians and Japanese to end the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War.
The treaty was drafted in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
Northern Securities The Northern Securities Company was a large railroad
trust in the West. Financier J.P. Morgan created the trust and
heavily invested in the company. The company was the first President Roosevelt
attacked in 1902, claiming the company was a railroad monopoly
and violated the Sherman Act. The government won the lawsuit; the
breakup of Northern Securities encouraged the government to continue
prosecuting the trusts.
Open Door Policy The Open Door Policy was one of President McKinley's imperialist
policies. Secretary of state John Hay announced that China's commercial
"door" should be open to all nations and not just Japan and the
Oyster Bay Oyster Bay is the small town in New York where Roosevelt
built his home Sagamore Hill.
Panama Panama is a small isthmus connecting North and South
America and separating the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. In 1903, President
Roosevelt secretly supported a coup to overthrow Panama's Colombian
rulers so that the United States could purchase land to build the
Panama Canal The Panama Canal is a waterway through the isthmus
of Panama that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Teddy
Roosevelt considered his seizure of Panama and the building of
the canal to be his greatest achievement as President.
Islands The Philippines is a string of islands of the southeastern
coast of China that was a part of the Spanish Empire until the
Spanish-American War in 1898 and 1899. On May 1, 1898, Admiral Dewey
defeated the Spanish fleet harbored in Manila, the capitol of the
Philippines. After the war, the United States annexed the Philippines,
but faced bitter opposition from nationalist rebels led by Emilio
Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment was an amendment to the constitution
of Cuba after it was liberated from Spain in the Spanish-American War
in 1898 and 1899. Although the U.S. granted Cuba its freedom after
the war, this American- engineered amendment severely hindered Cuba's
autonomy. It stated that the U.S. could intervene in the affairs
of Cuba any time it deemed necessary.
Plutocracy The plutocracy refers to the few Americans who controlled
an extraordinary amount of wealth. Prominent members included oil
tycoon John David Rockefeller, steel producer Andrew Carnegie,
and banker J.P. Morgan who was also the richest man in the world
at the time with a net worth of over one billion dollars. Many
of Roosevelt's policies focused on reducing the power of the plutocracy.
Machine Political machines were Democratic and Republican Party organizations
that controlled the election and campaigning processes. Machines
often controlled local and state politics in large cities during
the late 1800s and early 1900s. Powerful politicians called bosses
controlled the machines. Boss Thomas Platt ran the Republican political
machine in New York City at the turn of the century.
Populist Party The Populist Party was a third political party that
advocated extremely liberal legislation and policies to help primarily
the poor Midwestern farmers. They desired "free silver"–more and cheaper
money to be printed–and the U.S. dollar to be backed by silver
instead of gold. The party's champion was William Jennings Bryan.
By the early 1900s, the party had become essentially dead because
Americans outside the U.S. didn't seek the same goals. The Progressive
movement did spread throughout the country and many of its original
idealism stemmed from the Populist movement.
Portsmouth, New Hampshire In 1905 President Roosevelt negotiated a peace treaty
between Russia and Japan in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. For his efforts,
the President became the first American to win the Nobel Peace
Progressivism Progressives were primarily northerners who sought
reform in government and society in the early 1900s. President
Roosevelt was the most active Progressive politician, even campaigning under
the Progressive Party ticket in the Presidential election of 1912.
Reclamation Act The Reclamation Act of 1902 set aside federal money
to irrigate the dry, unlivable lands in the West so that settlers
could use the land to farm. The act is an example of one of the
many pieces of conservation legislation passed during the Roosevelt administrations.
Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine In 1904 President Roosevelt declared that only the
United States can police the Western Hemisphere, and reiterated
the terms of the Monroe Doctrine that the European powers must
not become involved in the affairs of Latin America. Later, this statement
came to be known as Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
Round Robin The Round Robin was a letter drafted after the Spanish-American
War by Col. Roosevelt and signed by many high-ranking military
commanders. The letter accused the War Department of being unprepared
for the war, and called for a removal of all U.S. troops occupying
Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Sagamore Hill Sagamore Hill was Roosevelt's twenty-three-room home
in Oyster Bay, New York. The house served was completed in 1885,
and served as the unofficial summer White House during his Presidency.
Roosevelt died at Sagamore Hill on January 5, 1919, and was buried
near the house.
San Francisco Board of Education In 1906 the San Francisco Board of Education expelled
Japanese students from the city's public school system in response
to the overwhelming number of Japanese migrants settling in the
area. Japan was deeply angered over this decision and secretly prepared
for war. War was averted when President Roosevelt negotiated with
Japan. Soon, the school board began readmitting students.
Santo Domingo Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
in 1904 to protect the governments of Santo Domingo, Venezuela
and other Latin American countries from threats from the European
Sherman Act Congress passed the Sherman Act in 1890 in an attempt
to eliminate trusts and the unfair business practices they employed to
secure monopolies on their products.
Spain During the late 1800s, the Spanish Empire was crumbling
but still held onto several key colonies including the Philippines
in Asia and Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. The United States
defeated Spain in the Spanish-American War in 1899–1899 and liberated
these colonies from Spanish control. The loss of these territories
destroyed the remnants of the Spanish Empire.
Spoils system The spoils system refers to the practice of elected
or appointed government officials hiring friends rather than qualified candidates
to fill bureaucratic offices. As U.S. Civil Service Commissioner,
Roosevelt tried to reform the spoils system and establish a meritocracy
where positions are filled based on candidates' qualifications.
Square Deal The Square Deal was President Roosevelt's domestic
program primarily aimed at helping middle class citizens. The policies
of the Square Deal involved attacking the plutocracy and trusts while
at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of
Standard Oil Standard Oil was a large oil trust run by plutocrat
John D. Rockefeller. Roosevelt used the Hepburn Bill to prosecute Standard
Oil for violating the Sherman Act.
Tammany Hall Tammany Hall was the headquarters of the most powerful political
machine in New York City in the late 1800s and early 1900s.
Tennis Cabinet The Tennis Cabinet was a collection of Roosevelt's
most trusted and loyal supporters within his administration. Younger
than the majority of the cabinet secretaries, Roosevelt often invited these
men to join him in his daily exercise routine which included walks
through obstacle courses, jujitsu, boxing, and tennis among other
The Winning of
the West The Winning of the West was a multi-volume
book Roosevelt published in 1894 that describes the settlement
of the American West.
Trusts Trusts were large corporations that specialized in
producing one product and attempted to create a monopoly. There
were scores of trusts in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Within
months of becoming President, Roosevelt attacked the trusts, prosecuting them
under the authority of the Sherman Act.
Service Commission The U.S. Civil Service Commission is responsible for
controlling the government bureaucracy. Roosevelt, appointed to
be the head of this commission by President Benjamin Harrison in 1888,
kept the post until 1895. During his time as commissioner, he sought
to reform the spoils system.
U.S. Steel Company The U.S. Steel Company was trust that controlled most
all of the steel production in the United States during Roosevelt's Presidency.
Its founder was the wealthy philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. In
1907, J.P. Morgan had U.S. Steel purchase the Tennessee Iron and
Coal Company to prevent a stock market crash during the Panic of
Venezuela Venezuela is a country in northern South America. In
1903, British and German warships began shelling its coastline
when the Venezuelan government refused to pay its debts. President Roosevelt
issued the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 to
protect Venezuela, Santo Domingo and other Latin American countries
from the European powers.
Wall Street Wall Street is a major street in New York City's financial
district and one of the most important financial centers in the
United States. The term often refers collectively to the bankers, financiers,
and investors who work on Wall Street.
The Algeciras Conference was a secret conference to negotiate
a dispute amongst Germany, England, and France over the division
of Morocco in 1905. President Roosevelt mediated the conference,
and eventually sided with England and France against Germany. Although
the breakout of World War I was averted at the conference, many
historians now see the outcome as the first step towards a U.S.
alliance with France and England.
The American Revolution was fought from 1776 to 1882 between
Great Britain and the newly formed United States of America. Please
see History SparkNotes.
American Civil War
The American Civil War was fought from 1861 to 1865 when several
Southern states seceded from the Union to form the Confederate
States of America led by President Jefferson Davis. It was the
bloodiest war in the history of the United States. Please see History
SparkNotes and the Abraham Lincoln biography SparkNote.
The 1902 Coal Strike was President Roosevelt's first
test in handling domestic emergencies. When the minors continued
to strike after many offers to settle the dispute at been made, Roosevelt
threatened to end the strike with 10,000 Army troopers. J.P. Morgan
able to negotiate a settlement before that became necessary.
Explosion of the
The mysterious explosion and sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in
Havana Harbor, Cuba was the impetus for many Americans to clamor
for war against the Spanish Empire in 1898.
Panic of 1907
The Panic of 1907 hit the United States when the Knickerbocker Trust
Company of New York failed. Conservatives accused Roosevelt of
having caused the panic with his Progressive policies while Roosevelt
countered that it was the excessive wealth of the plutocracy that
had caused it. Actually, neither accusation was accurate; the recession
was a global phenomenon. Depression was averted when banker J.P.
Morgan merged the Tennessee Iron and Coal Company with U.S. Steel.
The Russo-Japanese War was fought in 1904 and 1905 between Russia
and Japan. Japan technically won the war, but agreed to President
Roosevelt's offer to mediate and negotiate a peace treaty.
Battle of San Juan Hill
The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1, 1898,
near Santiago, Cuba. Colonel Roosevelt led his Rough Riders on
the charge up the hill. The regiment took many casualties, but captured
the Spanish stronghold at the top.
The Spanish-American War was fought in 1898 and 1899
to expel the Spanish Empire from the Americas. Many Americans convinced
themselves that the war was fought the lofty moral purpose of ending
the atrocities the Spaniards inflicted on the native inhabitants
on Cuba and other colonies. The war was fought on two fronts: in
the Caribbean and on the Philippine Islands. The United States
won the war and the two countries drafted the Treaty of Paris in
World War I
World War I, also known as the Great War prior to World
War II, was fought with Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian
Empire on one side against France, England, Russia, and eventually
the United States on the other. The war was extremely bloody and
a war of attrition. Please see History SparkNotes.