Charles I

King of England from 1625 to 1649, when he was deposed by Parliament and beheaded. Charles I was a member of the royal Stuart family and the son of King James I, who ruled from 1603 to 1625. Charles I's two sons would go on to become Kings Charles II and King James II, respectively. His wife was Queen Henrietta Maria.

Charles Stuart

The son of King Charles I, who later became King Charles II of England at the time of the Restoration in 1660. As heir to his deposed father's throne, Charles Stuart was the central figure of Royalist opposition to Cromwell's government. Many areas of England and Scotland were in favor of Charles's reclaiming the throne, and these Royalist areas remained a threat to the Protectorate regime throughout the 1650s.

Oliver Cromwell

Born in 1599, a member of the lesser gentry who later became a leading figure in the English Civil War and in the non-monarchic government that replaced the regime of the beheaded King Charles I. He was Lord Protector of England from 1653 until his death in September 1658.

Francis Bacon

Bacon (1561-1626) was one of the great philosophers of the Scientific Revolution. His thoughts on logic and ethics in science and his ideas on the cooperation and interaction of the various fields of science, presented in his work Novum Organum, have remained influential in the scientific world to this day.