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Book I, Chapters 1-3
Book I, Chapters 4-5
Book I, Chapters 6-9
Book I, Chapters 10-13
Book I, Chapters 14-16
Book II, Chapters 17-19
Book II, Chapters 20-24
Book II, Chapters 25-31
Quotes By Theme
Quotes By Section
Book I, Chapters 1–3
Book I, Chapters 4–5
Book I, Chapters 6–9
Book I, Chapters 10–13
Book I, Chapters 14–16
Book II, Chapters 17–19
Book II, Chapters 20–24
Book II, Chapters 25–31
Suggested Essay Topics
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1. What innate human faculty makes natural man want to escape the state of nature?
2. What innate human faculty allows natural man to discover how to escape the state of nature?
3. For Hobbes, what is science?
The gathering of facts about natural history
The knowledge of consequences from philosophical reasoning
The experimental study of natural phenomena
Technology and engineering
4. What determines "good" and "evil" in Hobbes's argument?
God and the devil
Appetite and aversion
5. For Hobbes, all philosophical knowledge must be derived from first principles, or shared definitions. How are these first principles established?
They are decreed by the sovereign.
They are discovered by studying nature.
They are given in the Bible.
Because they are contingent, first principles can never be agreed upon, and therefore Hobbes's argument in
is valid only if you already agree with his political ideas.
6. Why did Hobbes believe that the observation of nature was not suitable for the foundation of philosophy?
Nature tells us nothing about society or politics.
Hobbes had been excluded from the Royal Society for personal reasons; thus he rejected natural knowledge, which was the philosophical domain of the Royal Society, to distinguish his theories from the society's.
Nature is sacred and should not be exploited for human purposes.
The senses are variable and perception of nature is different for every observer.
7. Why is the Leviathan called "artificial"?
It is outside of nature.
It is manufactured by humans.
It is only a fictional civilization.
It is outside of nature, AND it is manufactured by humans.
8. What is the original source for the name "Leviathan"?
The Book of Job
9. How does matter move in Hobbes's philosophy?
Matter moves itself.
Matter is animated by the spirit.
Matter moves only when pushed by other matter.
Matter is directly controlled by God.
10. In the state of nature, why will two natural men inevitably fight if they desire the same thing?
They are naturally equal.
If they were altruistic they would be exploited.
Scarcity of resources
All of the above
11. Why does Hobbes claim that all men in the state of nature are equal?
Because even the weakest is capable of killing the strongest by some method
Because they have been created equal by God
Because of the social covenant whereby each man gives up his rights to every other man
Because they all have the same appetites and aversions
12. Why is it justifiable for the sovereign to put a subject to death?
Because might makes right
Because the subject has personally authorized the absolute power of the sovereign by covenant and has therefore authorized his/her own execution
Because the security of the Leviathan must be protected at any cost
The sovereign can only put a subject to death under conditions covered by a written law that is publicly known.
13. When is it justified for subjects to rebel against the sovereign?
When the sovereign has committed crimes against the people
When the sovereign is no longer popular and the people want to elect a new leader
When the sovereign has made political decisions that are not supported by large sections of the population
14. What innate faculty prevents civilized man from breaking the social contract?
15. What does Hobbes see as the immediate result of a rebellion against the sovereign, or against the social covenant, as in civil war?
The establishment of a new government
A return to the state of nature
The sovereign punishes the rebels and peace is restored to the Leviathan.
Civil wars only occur in governments that have not been structured according to Hobbesian rules.
16. Which of the following does Hobbes believe approximates the living conditions of the state of nature?
Native American societies
The Spanish Armada
17. What is the "Fundamental Law of Nature"?
Nature abhors a vacuum.
Human beings seek peace.
The war of all against all
The Pythagorean Theorem
18. Which of the following does Hobbes equate with an author, whose words are his or her own?
The natural person
The artificial person
19. What is the primary purpose of the Leviathan?
To conquer other civilizations
To establish an economy and the production of goods
To secure peace
To punish subjects who break the law
20. In the state of nature, Hobbes argues that familial power is maternal because
without laws, only the mother can know who the father of her children is.
females were physically stronger than males in the state of nature, as evidenced by the Amazons.
paternal last names (surnames) were not invented until after people escaped from the state of nature; therefore, the name of the Father had no power while people still lived in this original state.
in the state of nature, the dangerous lifestyle of the men--hunting, fighting wars, etc.--meant that females outnumbered males in the population; thus, females could be more selective about choosing a mate, and could threaten to replace a husband who was too controlling.
21. Which of the following, according to Hobbes, can be a sovereign body?
The king (monarchy)
A group of administrators (aristocracy)
A group of all who are willing to assemble (democracy)
All of the above
22. For Hobbes, how do we come to have natural laws?
We discover them by studying scripture.
We deduce them from the observation of natural facts.
We deduce them by reason as general conclusions.
We discover them by scientific experimentation.
23. Hobbes claims that being ignorant of the Laws of Nature does not excuse a subject who breaks the laws because
everyone is capable of deducing natural laws on his or her own through proper philosophical method.
the sovereign must punish all transgressions of the law in order to secure peace.
ignorance is a dangerous quality and must be exterminated from the Leviathan.
every subject is capable of reading Hobbes's book and therefore should know the Laws of Nature that Hobbes has discovered and written about.
24. According to Hobbes, angels and demons are
the original causes for natural appetites and aversions.
idols of the brain.
produced by the first movements of matter in the universe.
metaphors for the invisible motions of matter that lead to good or evil results.
25. Which of the following commands, if given by the sovereign, does a subject have the right to disobey?
The command to commit suicide
The command to execute a criminal
The command to wage war on defenseless enemies
The command to proclaim that Jesus was not the Christ and that Christianity is a false religion
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