'_Vexilla_[858] _Regis prodeunt Inferni_
Towards where we are; seek then with vision keen,'
My Master bade, 'if trace of him thou spy.'
As, when the exhalations dense have been,
Or when our hemisphere grows dark with night,
A windmill from afar is sometimes seen,
I seemed to catch of such a structure sight;
And then to 'scape the blast did backward draw
Behind my Guide--sole shelter in my plight.
Now was I where[859] (I versify with awe)
The shades were wholly covered, and did show
Visible as in glass are bits of straw.

Some stood[860] upright and some were lying low,
Some with head topmost, others with their feet;
And some with face to feet bent like a bow.
But we kept going on till it seemed meet
Unto my Master that I should behold
The creature once[861] of countenance so sweet.
He stepped aside and stopped me as he told:
'Lo, Dis! And lo, we are arrived at last
Where thou must nerve thee and must make thee bold,'
How I hereon stood shivering and aghast,
Demand not, Reader; this I cannot write;
So much the fact all reach of words surpassed.
I was not dead, yet living was not quite:
Think for thyself, if gifted with the power,
What, life and death denied me, was my plight.

Of that tormented realm the Emperor
Out of the ice stood free to middle breast;
And me a giant less would overtower
Than would his arm a giant. By such test
Judge then what bulk the whole of him must show,[862]
Of true proportion with such limb possessed.
If he was fair of old as hideous now,
And yet his brows against his Maker raised,
Meetly from him doth all affliction flow.
O how it made me horribly amazed
When on his head I saw three faces[863] grew!
The one vermilion which straight forward gazed;
And joining on to it were other two,
One rising up from either shoulder-bone,
Till to a junction on the crest they drew.
'Twixt white and yellow seemed the right-hand one;
The left resembled them whose country lies
Where valleywards the floods of Nile flow down.

Beneath each face two mighty wings did rise,
Such as this bird tremendous might demand:
Sails of sea-ships ne'er saw I of such size.
Not feathered were they, but in style were planned
Like a bat's wing:[864] by them a threefold breeze--
For still he flapped them--evermore was fanned,
And through its depths Cocytus caused to freeze.
Down three chins tears for ever made descent
From his six eyes; and red foam mixed with these.
In every mouth there was a sinner rent
By teeth that shred him as a heckle[865] would;
Thus three at once compelled he to lament.

To the one in front 'twas little to be chewed
Compared with being clawed and clawed again,
Till his back-bone of skin was sometimes nude.[866]
'The soul up yonder in the greater pain
Is Judas 'Scariot, with his head among
The teeth,' my Master said, 'while outward strain
His legs. Of the two whose heads are downward hung,
Brutus is from the black jowl pendulous:
See how he writhes, yet never wags his tongue.
The other, great of thew, is Cassius:[867]
But night is rising[868] and we must be gone;
For everything hath now been seen by us.'
Then, as he bade, I to his neck held on
While he the time and place of vantage chose;
And when the wings enough were open thrown
He grasped the shaggy ribs and clutched them close,
And so from tuft to tuft he downward went
Between the tangled hair and crust which froze.
We to the bulging haunch had made descent,
To where the hip-joint lies in it; and then
My Guide, with painful twist and violent,
Turned round his head to where his feet had been,
And like a climber closely clutched the hair:
I thought to Hell[869] that we returned again.
'Hold fast to me; it needs by such a stair,'
Panting, my Leader said, like man foredone,
'That we from all that wretchedness repair.'
Right through a hole in a rock when he had won,
The edge of it he gave me for a seat
And deftly then to join me clambered on.

I raised mine eyes, expecting they would meet
With Lucifer as I beheld him last,
But saw instead his upturned legs[870] and feet.
If in perplexity I then was cast,
Let ignorant people think who do not see
What point[871] it was that I had lately passed.
'Rise to thy feet,' my Master said to me;
'The way is long and rugged the ascent,
And at mid tierce[872] the sun must almost be.'
'Twas not as if on palace floors we went:
A dungeon fresh from nature's hand was this;
Rough underfoot, and of light indigent.
'Or ever I escape from the abyss,
O Master,' said I, standing now upright,
'Correct in few words where I think amiss.

Where lies the ice? How hold we him in sight
Set upside down? The sun, how had it skill
In so short while to pass to morn from night?'[873]
And he: 'In fancy thou art standing, still,
On yon side of the centre, where I caught
The vile worm's hair which through the world doth drill.
There wast thou while our downward course I wrought;
But when I turned, the centre was passed by
Which by all weights from every point is sought.
And now thou standest 'neath the other sky,
Opposed to that which vaults the great dry ground
And 'neath whose summit[874] there did whilom die
The Man[875] whose birth and life were sinless found.
Thy feet are firm upon the little sphere,
On this side answering to Judecca's round.

'Tis evening yonder when 'tis morning here;
And he whose tufts our ladder rungs supplied.
Fixed as he was continues to appear.
Headlong from Heaven he fell upon this side;
Whereon the land, protuberant here before,
For fear of him did in the ocean hide,
And 'neath our sky emerged: land, as of yore[876]
Still on this side, perhaps that it might shun
His fall, heaved up, and filled this depth no more.'
From Belzebub[877] still widening up and on,
Far-stretching as the sepulchre,[878] extends
A region not beheld, but only known
By murmur of a brook[879] which through it wends,
Declining by a channel eaten through
The flinty rock; and gently it descends.
My Guide and I, our journey to pursue
To the bright world, upon this road concealed
Made entrance, and no thought of resting knew.

He first, I second, still ascending held
Our way until the fair celestial train
Was through an opening round to me revealed:
And, issuing thence, we saw the stars[880] again.


[858] _Vexilla, etc._: '_The banners of the King of Hell advance._' The
words are adapted from a hymn of the Cross used in Holy Week; and they
prepare us to find in Lucifer the opponent of 'the Emperor who reigns on
high' (_Inf._ i. 124). It is somewhat odd that Dante should have put a
Christian hymn into Virgil's mouth.

[859] _Now was I where_: In the fourth and inner division or ring of the
Ninth Circle. Here are punished those guilty of treachery to their
lawful lords or to their benefactors. From Judas Iscariot, the
arch-traitor, it takes the name of Judecca.

[860] _Some stood, etc._: It has been sought to distinguish the degrees
of treachery of the shades by means of the various attitudes assigned to
them. But it is difficult to make more out of it than that some are
suffering more than others. All of them are the worst of traitors,
hard-hearted and cold-hearted, and now they are quite frozen in the ice,
sealed up even from the poor relief of intercourse with their

[861] _The creature once, etc._: Lucifer, guilty of treachery against
the Highest, at _Purg._ xii. 25 described as 'created noble beyond all
other creatures.' Virgil calls him Dis, the name used by him for Pluto
in the _Æneid_, and the name from which that of the City of Unbelief is
taken (_Inf._ viii. 68).

[862] _Judge then what bulk_: The arm of Lucifer was as much longer than
the stature of one of the giants as a giant was taller than Dante. We
have seen (_Inf._ xxxi. 58) that the giants were more than fifty feet in
height--nine times the stature of a man. If a man's arm be taken as a
third of his stature, then Satan is twenty-seven times as tall as a
giant, that is, he is fourteen hundred feet or so. For a fourth of this,
or nearly so--from the middle of the breast upwards--he stands out of
the ice, that is, some three hundred and fifty feet. It seems almost too
great a height for Dante's purpose; and yet on the calculations of some
commentators his stature is immensely greater--from three to five
thousand feet.

[863] _Three faces_: By the three faces are represented the three
quarters of the world from which the subjects of Lucifer are drawn:
vermilion or carnation standing for Europe, yellow for Asia, and black
for Africa. Or the faces may symbolise attributes opposed to the Wisdom,
Power, and Love of the Trinity (_Inf._ iii. 5). See also note on line 1.

[864] _A bat's wing_: Which flutters and flaps in dark and noisome
places. The simile helps to bring more clearly before us the dim light
and half-seen horrors of the Judecca.

[865] _A heckle_: Or brake; the instrument used to clear the fibre of
flax from the woody substance mixed with it.

[866] _Sometimes nude_: We are to imagine that the frame of Judas is
being for ever renewed and for ever mangled and torn.

[867] _Cassius_: It has been surmised that Dante here confounds the pale
and lean Cassius who was the friend of Brutus with the L. Cassius
described as corpulent by Cicero in the Third Catiline Oration. Brutus
and Cassius are set with Judas in this, the deepest room of Hell,
because, as he was guilty of high treason against his Divine Master, so
they were guilty of it against Julius Cæsar, who, according to Dante,
was chosen and ordained by God to found the Roman Empire. As the great
rebel against the spiritual authority Judas has allotted to him the
fiercer pain. To understand the significance of this harsh treatment of
the great Republicans it is necessary to bear in mind that Dante's
devotion to the idea of the Empire was part of his religion, and far
surpassed in intensity all we can now well imagine. In the absence of a
just and strong Emperor the Divine government of the world seemed to him
almost at a stand.

[868] _Night is rising_: It is Saturday evening, and twenty-four hours
since they entered by the gate of Inferno.

[869] _I thought to Hell, etc._: Virgil, holding on to Lucifer's hairy
sides, descends the dark and narrow space between him and the ice as far
as to his middle, which marks the centre of the earth. Here he swings
himself round so as to have his feet to the centre as he emerges from
the pit to the southern hemisphere. Dante now feels that he is being
carried up, and, able to see nothing in the darkness, deems they are
climbing back to the Inferno. Virgil's difficulty in turning himself
round and climbing up the legs of Lucifer arises from his being then at
the 'centre to which all weights tend from every part.' Dante shared the
erroneous belief of the time, that things grew heavier the nearer they
were to the centre of the earth.

[870] _His upturned legs_: Lucifer's feet are as far above where Virgil
and Dante are as was his head above the level of the Judecca.

[871] _What point, etc._: The centre of the earth. Dante here feigns to
have been himself confused--a fiction which helps to fasten attention on
the wonderful fact that if we could make our way through the earth we
should require at the centre to reverse our posture. This was more of a
wonder in Dante's time than now.

[872] _Mid tierce_: The canonical day was divided into four parts, of
which Tierce was the first and began at sunrise. It is now about
half-past seven in the morning. The night was beginning when they took
their departure from the Judecca: the day is now as far advanced in the
southern hemisphere as they have spent time on the passage. The journey
before them is long indeed, for they have to ascend to the surface of
the earth.

[873] _To morn from night_: Dante's knowledge of the time of day is
wholly derived from what Virgil tells him. Since he began his descent
into the Inferno he has not seen the sun.

[874] _'Neath whose summit_: Jerusalem is in the centre of the northern
hemisphere--an opinion founded perhaps on _Ezekiel_ v. 5: 'Jerusalem I
have set in the midst of the nations and countries round about her.' In
the _Convito_, iii. 5, we find Dante's belief regarding the distribution
of land and sea clearly given: 'For those I write for it is enough to
know that the Earth is fixed and does not move, and that, with the
ocean, it is the centre of the heavens. The heavens, as we see, are for
ever revolving around it as a centre; and in these revolutions they must
of necessity have two fixed poles.... Of these one is visible to almost
all the dry land of the Earth; and that is our north pole [star]. The
other, that is, the south, is out of sight of almost all the dry land.'

[875] _The Man_: The name of Christ is not mentioned in the _Inferno_.

[876] _Land, as of yore, etc._: On the fall of Lucifer from the southern
sky all the dry land of that hemisphere fled before him under the ocean
and took refuge in the other; that is, as much land emerged in the
northern hemisphere as sank in the southern. But the ground in the
direct line of his descent to the centre of the earth heaped itself up
into the Mount of Purgatory--the only dry land left in the southern
hemisphere. The Inferno was then also hollowed out; and, as Mount
Calvary is exactly antipodal to Purgatory, we may understand that on the
fall of the first rebels the Mount of Reconciliation for the human race,
which is also that of Purification, rose out of the very realms of
darkness and sin.--But, as Todeschini points out, the question here
arises of whether the Inferno was not created before the earth. At
_Parad_. vii. 124, the earth, with the air and fire and water, is
described as 'corruptible and lasting short while;' but the Inferno is
to endure for aye, and was made before all that is not eternal (_Inf._
iii. 8).

[877] _Belzebub_: Called in the Gospel the prince of the devils. It may
be worth mentioning here that Dante sees in Purgatory (_Purg._ viii. 99)
a serpent which he says may be that which tempted Eve. The
identification of the great tempter with Satan is a Miltonic, or at any
rate a comparatively modern idea.

[878] _The sepulchre_: The Inferno, tomb of Satan and all the wicked.

[879] _A brook_: Some make this to be the same as Lethe, one of the
rivers of the Earthly Paradise. It certainly descends from the Mount of

[880] _The stars_: Each of the three divisions of the Comedy closes with
'the stars.' These, as appears from _Purg._ i. are the stars of dawn. It
was after sunrise when they began their ascent to the surface of the
earth, and so nearly twenty-four hours have been spent on the
journey--the time it took them to descend through Inferno. It is now the
morning of Easter Sunday--that is, of the true anniversary of the
Resurrection although not of the day observed that year by the Church.
See _Inf._ xxi. 112.


Abati, Bocca degli, xxxii. 106.

---- Buoso, xxv. 140.

Abbagliato, xxix. 132.

Abel, iv. 56.

Abraham, iv. 58.

Absalom, xxviii. 137.

Accorso, Francis d', xv. 110.

Acheron, iii. 78, xiv. 116.

Achilles, v. 65, xii. 71, xxvi. 62, xxxi. 4.

Acquacheta, xvi. 97.

Acre, xxvii. 89.

Adam, iii. 115, iv. 55.

---- Master, xxx. 61, etc.

Adige, xii. 5.

Ægina, xxix. 58.

Æneas, ii. 32, iv. 122, xxvi. 93.

Æsop, xxiii. 4.

Agnello Brunelleschi, xxv. 68.

Ahithophel, xxviii. 138.

Alardo, xxviii. 18.

Alberigo, Friar, xxxiii. 118.

Alberto of Siena, xxix. 110.

---- degli Alberti, xxxii. 57.

Alchemists, xxix. 43, etc.

Aldobrandi, Tegghiaio, vi. 79, xvi. 42.

Alecto, ix. 47.

Alexander, Count of Romena, xxx. 77.

---- degli Alberti, xxxii. 55.

---- xii. 107, xiv. 31.

Alessio Interminei, xviii. 122.

Ali, xxviii. 32.

Alichino, xxi. 118, xxii. 112.

Alps, xiv. 30.

Amphiaraüs, xx. 34.

Amphion, xxxii. 11.

Anastasius, Pope, xi. 8.

Anaxagoras, iv. 138.

Anchises, i. 74.

Andrea, Jacopo da Sant', xiii. 133.

Angels, fallen, iii. 37.

Anger, those guilty of, vii. 110, etc.

Angiolello, xxviii. 77.

Annas, xxiii. 121.

Anselmuccio, xxxiii. 50.

Antæus, xxxi. 100.

Antenora, xxxii. 89.

Antiochus, xix. 86.

Apennines, xvi. 96, xxvii. 29.

Apocalypse, xix. 106.

Apulia, xxviii. 8.

Apulians, xxviii. 16.

Aquarius, xxiv. 2.

Arachne, xvii. 18.

Arbia, x. 86.

Aretines, xxii. 5, xxix. 109, xxx. 31.

Arethusa, xxv. 99.

Argenti, Philip, viii. 61.

Argives, xxviii. 84.

Ariadne, xii. 20.

Aristotle, iv. 131.

Arles, ix. 112.

Arno, xiii. 147, xv. 113, xxiii. 95, xxx. 65, xxxiii. 83.

Arrigo, vi. 80.

Arrogance, viii. 46, etc.

Arsenal of Venice, xxi. 7.

Arthur, King, xxxii. 62.

Aruns, xx. 46.

Asciano, Caccia d', xxix. 130.

Asdente, xx. 118.

Athamas, xxx. 4.

Athens, xii. 17.

Atropos, xxxiii. 126.

Attila, xii. 134, xiii. 149.

Augustus, i. 71.

Aulis, xx. III.

Austrian, xxxii. 25.

Avarice, i. 49.

---- those guilty of, vii. 25, etc.

Aventine, xxv. 26.

Averroës, iv. 144.

Avicenna, iv. 143.

Bacchiglione, xv. 113.

Bacchus, xx. 59.

Baptism, iv. 36.

Baptist, St John, xiii. 143, xxx. 74.

Barbariccia, xxi. 120, xxii. 29, 59, 145.

Barrators, xxi. xxii.

Beatrice, ii. 70, 103, x. 131, xii. 88, xv. 90.

Beccheria, Abbot, xxxii. 119.

Bello, Geri del, xxix. 27.

Belzebub, xxxiv. 127.

Benacus, xx. 63, etc.

Benedict, Abbey of St., xvi. 100.

Bergamese, xx. 71.

Bertrand de Born, xxviii. 134.

Bianchi, the party of the, vi. 65, xxiv. 150.

Bisensio, xxxii. 56.

Blacks, the party of the, vi. 65, xxiv. 143.

Blasphemy, xiv. 46, etc.

Bocca degli Abati, xxxii. 106.

Bologna, xxiii. 142.

Bolognese, xviii. 58, xxiii. 104.

Bonatti, Guido, xx. 118.

Boniface VII., xix. 53, xxvii. 70, 85.

Bonturo, xxi. 41.

Born, Bertrand de, xxviii. 134.

Borsieri, William, xvi. 70.

Branca Doria, xxxiii. 137, 140.

Branda, Fonte, xxx. 78.

Brenta, xv. 7.

Brescia, xx. 69.

Brescians, xx. 71.

Briareus, xxxi. 98.

Bridge of St. Angelo, xviii. 29.

Brigata, xxxiii. 89.

Bruges, xv. 5.

Brunelleschi, Agnello, xxv. 68.

Brunetto Latini, xv. 30, etc.

Brutus, Lucius Junius, iv. 127.

---- Marcus Junius, xxxiv. 65.

Buiamonte, xvii. 72.

Bulicamë, xiv. 79.

Buoso da Duera, xxxii. 116.

---- degli Abati, xxv. 140.

---- Donati, xxx. 45.

Caccia D' Asciano, xxix. 130.

Caccianimico Venedico, xviii. 50.

Cacus, xxv. 25.

Cadmus, xxv. 98.

Cadsand, xv. 5.

Cæsar, Frederick II, xiii. 65.

---- Julius, i. 70, iv. 123, xxviii. 97.

Cahors, xi. 49.

Caiaphas, xxiii. 115.

Cain, xx. 125.

Caïna, v. 107, xxxii. 59.

Caitiffs, iii. 35.

Calcabrina, xxi. 118, xxii. 133.

Calchas, xx. 110.

Camicion de' Pazzi, xxxii. 68.

Camilla, i. 107, iv. 124.

Camonica, Val, xx. 65.

Cancellieri, xxxii. 63.

Capaneus, xiv. 63, xxv. 15.

Capocchio, xxix. 136, xxx. 28.

Capraia, xxxiii. 82.

Caprona, xxi. 94.

Cardinal, the Octavian Ubaldini, x. 120.

Cardinals, vii. 47.

Carisenda, xxxi. 136.

Carlino de' Pazzi, xxxii. 68.

Carnal sinners, v.

Carrarese, xx. 48.

Casalodi, xx. 95.

Casentino, xxx. 65.

Cassero, Guido del, xxviii. 77.

Cassius, xxxiv. 67.

Castle of St. Angelo, xviii. 31.

Catalano, Friar, xxiii. 104, 114.

Cato of Utica, xiv. 15.

Cattolica, xxviii. 80.

Caurus, xi. 114.

Cavalcanti, Cavalcante, x. 53.

---- Francesco, xxv. 151.

---- Gianni, xxx. 32, 42.

---- Guido, x. 63.

Cecina, xiii. 9.

Celestine V., iii. 59, xxvii. 105.

Centaurs, xii. 56, etc., xxv. 17.

Centre of the universe, xxxiv. 110.

Ceperano, xxviii. 16.

Cerberus, vi. 13, ix. 98.

Cervia, xxvii. 41.

Cesena, xxvii. 52.

Ceuta, xxvi. 111.

Chaos, xii. 43.

Charlemagne, xxxi. 17.

Charles's Wain, xi. 114.

Charon, iii. 94, etc.

Charybdis, vii. 22.

Cherubim, Black, xxvii. 113.

Chiana, Val di, xxix. 46.

Chiarentana, xv. 9.

Chiron, xii. 65, etc.

Christ, iv. 53, xxxiv. 115.

Ciacco, vi. 52.

Cianfa de' Donati, xxv. 43.

Circe, xxvi. 91.

Ciriatto, xxi. 122, xxii. 55.

City of Dis, viii. 68, etc.

Clement V., xix. 83.

Cleopatra, v. 63.

Clergy, vii. 46, xv. 106.

Cocytus, xiv. 119, xxxi. 123, xxxiii. 156, xxxiv. 52.

Coiners, false, xxix.

Colchians, xviii. 87.

Cologne, xxiii. 63.

Colonna, family, xxvii. 86.

Comedy, the, xvi. 128.

Constantine, xix. 115, xxvii. 94.

Cord, Dante's, xvi. 106.

Cornelia, iv. 128.

Corneto, xiii. 8.

---- Rinier da, xii. 136.

Counsellors, false, xxvi. xxvii.

Counterfeiters of all kinds, xxix. xxx.

Crete, xii. 12, xiv. 95.

Crucifixion, xxi. 112.

Curio, xxviii. 93, etc.

Cyclopes, xiv. 55.

Cyprus, xxviii. 82.

Dædalus, xvii. 111, xxix. 116.

Damietta, xiv. 104.

Danube, xxxii. 25.

David, iv. 58, xxviii. 137.

Deidamia, xxvi. 61.

Dejanira, xii. 68.

Democritus, iv. 136.

Demons, viii. 82, etc., xxi. 29, etc., xxxiii. 131.

Dido, v. 61, 85.

Diogenes, iv. 137.

Diomedes, xxvi. 56.

Dionysius, xii. 107.

Dioscorides, iv. 139.

Dis (Satan), xi. 65, xii. 38, xxxiv. 20.

---- City of, viii. 68, etc.

Dolcino, Fra, xxviii. 55.

Don, xxxii. 27.

Donati, Buoso, xxx. 45.

---- Cianfa, xxv. 43.

Doria, Branca, xxxiii. 137, 140.

Duera, Buoso, xxxii. 116.

Duke of Athens, ix. 54, xii. 17.

Elder of Lucca, xxi. 38.

Electra, iv. 121.

Elijah, xxvi. 35.

Elisha, xxvi. 34.

Empedocles, iv. 137.

Ephialtes, xxxi. 94, 108.

Epicurus, x. 13.

Erichtho, ix. 23.

Erinnyes, ix. 45.

Este, Obizzo d', xii. 111.

Eteocles, xxvi. 54.

Ethiopia, xxiv. 89, xxxii. 44.

Euclid, iv. 142.

Euryalus, i. 108.

Eurypylus, xx. 112.

Ezzelino, xii. 110.

Faenza, xxvii. 49, xxxiii. 123.

False coiners, xxix. xxx.

---- counsellors, xxvi. xxvii.

Fano, xxviii. 76.

Farfarello, xxi. 123, xxii. 94.

Farinata, vi. 79, x. 32.

Fishes, the, xi. 113.

Flatterers, xviii.

Flemings, xv. 4.

Florence, x. 92, xiii. 143, xvi. 75, xxiii. 95, xxiv. 144, xxvi. 1,
xxxii. 120.

Florentines, viii. 62, xv. 61, xvi. 73, xvii. 70, xxxiii. 11.

Florin, xxx. 89.

Focara, xxviii. 89.

Foccaccia, xxxii. 63.

Forlì, xvi. 99, xxvii. 43.

Fortune, vii. 62, etc.

France, xix. 87.

Francesca da Rimini, v. 116.

Francis d'Accorso, xv. 110.

Francis of Assisi, xxvii. 112.

Frederick II., x. 119, xiii. 59, 68, xxiii. 66.

French, xxvii. 44, xxix. 123, xxxii. 115.

Friars, Merry--Frati Godenti, xxiii. 103.

---- Minor, xxiii. 3.

Frisians, xxxi. 64.

Fucci, Vanni, xxiv. 125.

Furies, ix. 38.

Gaddo, xxxiii. 67.

Gaeta, xxvi. 92.

Galen, iv. 143.

Galahad, v. 137.

Gallura, Gomita of, xxii. 81.

Ganellone, xxxii. 122.

Garda, xx. 65.

Gardingo, xxiii. 108.

Gate of Inferno, iii. 1.

---- St. Peter, i. 134.

Gaville, xxv. 151.

Genesis, xi. 107.

Genoese, xxxiii. 151.

Geri del Bello, xxix. 27.

Germany, xvii. 21, xx. 61.

Geryon, xvii. 97, etc.

Ghisola, xviii. 55.

Gianni Schicchi, xxx. 32, 42.

---- del Soldanieri, xxxii. 121.

Giants, xxxi.

Gibraltar, xxvi. 107.

Gloomy, the, vii. 118.

Gluttons, vi.

Godenti, Frati, xxiii. 103.

Gomita, Fra, xxii. 81.

Gorgon, ix. 56.

Gorgona, xxxiii. 82.

Governo, xx. 78.

Greece, xx. 108.

Greeks, xxvi. 75, xxx. 98, 122.

Greyhound, i. 101.

Griffolino, xxix. 109, xxx. 31.

Gualandi, xxxiii. 32.

Gualdrada, xvi. 37.

Guidi, Counts, xxx. 76.

Guido Bonatti, xx. 118.

---- Cavalcanti, x. 63.

---- del Cassero, xxviii. 77.

Guido of Montefeltro, xxvii. 4, etc.

---- of Romena, xxx. 76.

Guidoguerra, xvi. 38.

Guiscard, Robert, xxviii. 14.

Guy of Montfort, xii. 119.

Hannibal, xxxi. 117.

Harpies, xiii. 10, etc.

Hautefort, xxix. 29.

Heathen, the virtuous, iv. 37.

Hector, iv. 122.

Hecuba, xxx. 16.

Helen, v. 64.

Henry of England, the Young King, xxviii. 135.

Heraclitus, iv. 139.

Hercules, xxv. 32, xxvi. 108, xxxi. 132.

Heretics, x. and xxviii.

Hippocrates, iv. 143.

Homer, iv. 88.

Homicides, xii.

Horace, iv. 89.

Hypocrites, xxiii.

Hypsipyle, xviii. 92.

Icarus, xvii. 109.

Ida, xiv. 98.

Ilion, i. 75.

Imola, xxvii. 49.

India, xiv. 32.

Infants, unbaptized, iv. 29.

Infidels, x.

Interminei, Alessio, xviii. 122.

Irascible, the, vii. and viii.

Isaac, iv. 59.

Israel, iv. 59.

Italy, i. 106, ix. 114, xx. 63.

Jacopo da Sant' Andrea (James of St. Andrews), xiii. 133.

---- (James) Rusticucci, vi. 80, xvi. 44.

Jason, xviii. 86.

---- Hebrew, xix. 85.

Jehoshaphat, x. 11.

Jerusalem, xxxiv. 114.

Jesus Christ, iv. 53, xxxiv. 115.

Jews, xxiii. 123, xxvii. 87.

John Baptist, St., xiii. 143, xxx. 74.

---- ---- Church of, xix. 17.

John, St., Evangelist, xix. 106.

Joseph, xxx. 97.

Jove, xiv. 52, xxxi. 44, 92.

Jubilee, year of, xviii. 29.

Judas Iscariot, ix. 27, xix. 96, xxxi. 143, xxxiv. 62.

Judecca, xxxiv. 117.

Julia, iv. 128.

Julius Cæsar, i. 70, iv. 123, xxviii. 97.

Juno, xxx. 1.

Jupiter, xiv. 52, xxxi. 44, 92.

Lamone, xxvii. 49.

Lancelot, v. 128.

Lanfranchi, xxxiii. 32.

Lano, xiii. 120.

Lateran, xxvii. 86.

Latian land, xxvii. 26, xxviii. 71.

Latians (Italians), xxii. 66, xxvii. 33, xxix. 88, 91.

Latinus, King, iv. 125.

Latini, Brunetto, xv. 30, etc.

Lavinia, iv. 126.

Learchus, xxx. 10.

Lemnos, xviii. 88.

Leopard, i. 32.

Lethe, xiv. 130, 136.

Libicocco, xxi. 121, xxii. 70.

Libya, xxiv. 85.

Limbo, iv. 24, etc.

Linus, iv. 141.

Lion, i. 45.

Livy, xxviii. 12.

Loderingo, Friar, xxiii. 104.

Logodoro, xxii. 89.

Lombard, i. 68, xxii. 99.

---- dialect, xxvii. 20.

Lombardy, xxviii. 74.

Lucan, iv. 90, xxv. 94.

Lucca, xviii. 122, xxi. 38, xxxiii. 30.

Lucia, ii. 97, 100.

Lucifer, xxxi. 143, xxxiv. 89.

Lucretia, iv. 128.

Luni, xx. 47.

Maccabees, xix. 86.

Magra, Val di, xxiv. 145.

Magus, Simon, xix. 1.

Mahomet, xxviii. 31, etc.

Mainardo Pagani, xxvii. 50.

Majorca, xxviii. 82.

Malacoda, xxi. 76, xxiii. 140.

Malatestas of Rimini, v. 97, xxvii. 46, xxviii. 85.

Malebolge, xviii. 1, xxi. 5, xxiv. 37, xxix. 41.

Malebranche, xxi. 37, xxii. 100, xxiii. 23.

Manfredi, Alberigo, xxxiii. 118.

Manto, xx. 55.

Mantua, xx. 93.

Mantuans, i. 69, ii. 58.

Marcabò, xxviii. 75.

Marcia, iv. 128.

Maremma, xxv. 19, xxix. 48.

Marquis of Este, xviii. 56.

Mars, xiii. 144, xxiv. 145, xxxi. 51.

Mascheroni, Sassol, xxxii. 65.

Matthias, Apostle, xix. 95.

Medea, xviii. 96.

Medicina, Pier da, xxviii. 73.

Medusa, ix. 52.

Megæra, ix. 46.

Menalippus, xxxii. 131.

Messenger of heaven, ix. 85.

Michael, Archangel, vii. 11.

---- Scott, xx. 116.

---- Zanche, xxii. 88, xxxiii. 144.

Mincio, xx. 77.

Minos, v. 4, xiii. 96, xx. 36, xxvii. 124, xxix. 120.

Minotaur, xii. 12, 25.

Mongibello, xiv. 56.

Montagna, xxvii. 47.

Montaperti, x. 85, xxxii. 81.

Montereggione, xxxi. 40.

Montfort, Guy of, xii. 119.

Montone, xvi. 94.

Moon, the, x. 80, xx. 127.

Mordred, xxxii. 61.

Morocco, xxvi. 104.

Mosca, vi. 80, xxviii. 106.

Moses, iv. 57.

Mozzi, Andrea de', xv. 112.

Murderers, xii.

Myrrha, xxx. 38.

Napoleone Degli Alberti, xxxii. 55.

Narcissus, xxx. 128.

Nasidius, xxv. 95.

Navarre, xxii. 48.

Navarese, xxii. 121.

Neptune, xxviii 83.

Neri, vi. 65, xxiv. 143.

Nessus, xii. 67, etc., xiii. 1.

Nicholas of Siena, xxix. 127.

---- III., Pope, xix. 31.

Nile, xxxiv. 45.

Nimrod, xxxi. 77.

Ninus, v. 59.

Nisus, i. 108.

Novarese, xxviii. 59.

Obizzo d'Este, xii. 111.

Ordelaffi, xxvii. 45.

Orpheus, iv. 140.

Orsini, xix. 70.

Ovid, iv. 90, xxv. 97.

Paduans, xv. 7, xvii. 70.

Pagani, Mainardo, xxvii. 50.

Palestrina, xxvii. 102.

Palladium, xxvi. 63.

Panders, xviii.

Paris, v. 67.

Pasiphaë, xii. 13.

Patriarchs, iv. 55.

Paul, Apostle, ii. 32.

Pazzi, Camicion de', xxxii. 68.

---- Rinier de', xii. 137.

Peculators, xxi. xxii.

Penelope, xxvi. 96.

Pennine Alps, xx. 66.

Penthesilea, iv. 125.

Perillus, xxvii. 8.

Peschiera, xx. 70.

Peter, Apostle, i. 134, ii. 24, xix. 91, 94.

Peter's, St., Church, xviii. 32, xxxi. 59.

Phaëthon, xvii. 106.

Phalaris, xxvii. 7.

Pharisees, xxiii. 116, xxvii. 85.

Philip Argenti, viii. 61.

---- the Fair, xix. 87.

Phlegethon, xiv. 116, 131.

Phlegra, xiv. 58.

Phlegyas, viii. 19, 24.

Phoenix, xxiv. 107.

Pholus, xii. 72.

Photinus, xi. 9.

Piceno, Campo, xxiv. 148.

Pier da Medicina, xxviii. 73.

---- delle Vigne, xiii. 58.

Pietrapana, xxxii. 29.

Pinamonte, xx. 96.

Pine cone of St. Peter's, xxxi. 59.

Pisa, xxxiii. 79.

Pisans, xxxiii. 30.

Pistoia, xxiv. 126, 143, xxv. 10.

Plato, iv. 134.

Plutus, vi. 115, vii. 2.

Po, v. 98, xx. 78.

Pola, ix. 113.

Pole, South, xxvi. 127.

Polenta, v. 97, xxvii. 42.

Polydorus, xxx. 18.

Polynices, xxvi. 54.

Polyxena, xxx. 17.

Pope Anastasius, xi. 8.

---- Boniface VIII., xix. 53, xxvii. 70, 85.

Pope Celestine V., iii. 59, xxvii. 105.

---- Clement V., xix. 83.

---- Nicholas III., xix. 31.

---- Sylvester, xix. 117, xxvii. 95.

Popes, ii. 24, vii. 47, xix. 104.

Potiphar's wife, xxx. 97.

Prato, xxvi. 9.

Priam, xxx. 15.

Priest, the High, Boniface VIII., xxvii. 70.

Priscian, xv. 109.

Prodigals, xiii. 115, xxix. 125.

Proserpine, ix. 44, x. 80.

Ptolemy, iv. 142.

Ptolomæa, xxxiii. 124.

Puccio Sciancato, xxv. 148.

Pyrrhus, xii. 135.

Quarnaro, ix. 113.

Rachel, ii. 102, iv. 60.

Ravenna, v. 97, xxvii. 40.

Red Sea, xxiv. 90.

Refusal, the great, iii. 60.

Reno, xviii. 61.

Rhea, xiv. 100.

Rhone, ix. 112.

Rimini, xxviii. 86.

Rinier da Corneto, xii. 136.

---- Pazzo, xii. 137.

Robbers, xii. 137.

Robert Guiscard, xxviii. 14.

Roger, the Archbishop, xxxiii. 14.

Roland, xxxi. 18.

Romagna, xxvii. 28, 37, xxxiii. 154.

Roman Church, xix. 57.

Romans, xv. 77, xviii. 28, xxvi. 60, xxviii. 10.

Rome, i. 71, ii. 20, xiv. 105, xxxi. 59.

Romena, xxx. 73.

Roncesvalles, xxxi. 17.

Rubicante, xxi. 123, xxii. 40.

Rusticucci, Jacopo, vi. 80, xvi. 44.

Sabellus, xxv. 95.

Saladin, iv. 129.

Santerno, xxvii. 49.

Saracens, xxvii. 87.

Sardinia, xxii. 90, xxix. 48.

Sassol Mascheroni, xxxii. 65.

Satan, vii. 1. _See_ Dis.

Saturn, xiv. 96.

Savena, xviii. 60.

Savio, xxvii. 52.

Scarmiglione, xxi. 105.

Schicchi, Gianni, xxx. 32.

Schismatics, xxviii.

Sciancatto, Puccio, xxv. 148.

Scipio, xxxi. 116.

Scott, Michael, xx. 116.

Seducers, xviii.

Semele, xxx. 1.

Semiramis, v. 58.

Seneca, iv. 141.

Serchio, xxi. 49.

Serpents, xxiv. 83, etc.

Seven Kings against Thebes, xiv. 68.

Seville, xx. 126, xxvi. 110.

Sichæus, v. 62.

Sicilian Bull, xxvii. 7.

Sicily, xii. 108.

Siena, xxix. 110, 129.

Sienese, xxix. 122.

Silvius, ii. 13.

Simon Magus, xix. 1.

Simoniacs, xix.

Sinon, xxx. 98.

Sismondi, xxxiii. 33.

Socrates, iv. 135.

Sodom, xi. 49.

Soldanieri, Gianni del, xxii. 121.

Soothsayers, xx.

Soracte, xxvii. 94.

Spain, xxvi. 102.

Spendthrifts, vii.

Statue of Time, xiv. 103.

---- Mars, xiii. 147.

Stricca, xxix. 125.

Strophades, xiii. 11.

Styx, vii. 106, ix. 81, xiv. 116.

Suicides, xiii.

Sultan, v. 60, xxvii. 90.

Sylvester, Pope, xix. 117, xxvii. 95.

Tabernicch, xxxii. 28.

Tagliacozzo, xxviii. 17.

Tarquin, iv. 127.

Tartars, xvii. 16.

Tegghiaio Aldobrandi, vi. 79, xvi. 42.

Thais, xviii. 133.

Thales, iv. 137.

Thames, xii. 120.

Thebes, xiv. 69, xx. 32, 59, xxv. 15, xxx. 2, 23, xxxii. 11.

---- modern, Pisa, xxxiii. 89.

Theseus, ix. 54, xii. 17.

Thibault, xxii. 52.

Thieves, xxiv. xxv.

Tiber, xxvii. 30.

Time, statue of, xiv. 103.

Tiresias, xx. 40.

Tirol, xx. 62.

Tisiphone, ix. 48.

Tityus, xxxi. 124.

Tombs, the red-hot, ix. 116, etc.

Toppo, xiii. 121.

Traitors, xxxii., etc.

_Treasure_ of B. Latini, xv. 119.

Trent, xii. 5, xx. 68.

Tribaldello, xxxii. 122.

Tristam, v. 67.

Trojan Furies, xxx. 22.

Trojans, xxviii. 10, xxx. 14.

Troy, i. 74, xxx. 98.

Tully, iv. 140.

Turks, xvii. 16.

Turnus, i. 108.

Tuscan, xxii. 99, xxiii. 76, 91, xxiv. 122, xxviii. 108, xxxii. 66.

Tydeus, xxxii. 130.

Tyrants, xii. 103, etc.

Typhon, xxxi. 124.

Ubaldini, the Cardinal Octavian, x. 120.

---- Archbishop Roger, xxxiii. 14.

Uberti, Farinata, vi. 79, x. 32.

Ugolino, xxxii. 125, etc.

Uguccione, xxxiii. 89.

Ulysses, xxvi. 55, etc.

Unbelievers, x.

Urbino, xxvii. 30.

Usurers, xvii. 45.

Usury, xi. 95.

Val Camonica, xx. 65.

Valdichiana, xxix. 46.

Valdimagra, xxiv. 145.

Vanni Fucci, xxiv. 125.

Veltro, the, i. 101.

Vendetta, the, and Dante, xxix. 32.

Venetians, xxi. 7.

Vercelli, xxviii. 75.

Verona, xv. 122, xx. 68.

Verucchio, xxvii. 46.

Vigne, Pier delle, xiii. 58.

Violent, the, against others, xii.;
against themselves, xiii.;
against God and Nature, xiv., etc.

Virgil, i. 79.

And elsewhere in the _Inferno_ mentioned by name, though usually
by some title, as, _e.g._ Master, Leader, or Lord.

Viso, Monte, xvi. 95.

Vitaliano, xvii. 68.

Volto, the Santo, xxi. 48.

Wain, Charles's, xi. 114.

Wanton, the, v.

Whites, the party of the, vi. 65, xxiv. 150.

Witches and wizards, xx.

Wolf, i. 49.

Wrathful, the, vii. 110.

Zanche, Michael, xxii. 88, xxxiii. 144.

Zeno, iv. 138.

Zita, Santa, xxi. 38.