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Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading . London: Athlone, 1993.

Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The First Crusaders, 1095-1131. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Kapelle, William E. The Norman Conquest of the North: the Region and its Transformation, 1000-1135 . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Tierney, Brian. The crisis of Church and State, 1050-1300. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988

Tierney, Brian & Sidney Painter. Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 300- 1475. Boston : McGraw-Hill, 1999.

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Southern, R. W. The Place of Henry I in English History London : Oxford University Press, 1962.

Southern, R. W. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1978.

Strayer, Joseph Reese. Feudalism. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1965.

Lopez, Robert Sabatino. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 950- 1350. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Knopf, 1997.

Nicol, Donald MacGillivray. Byzantium and Venice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

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Holt, P. M. The Age of the Crusades : the Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. New York: Longman, 1986.

Cantor, Norman F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages: a Completely Revised and Expanded Edition of Medieval History, the Life and Death of a Civilization. New York: Harper-Collins, 1993.

Cantor, Norman F., ed. The Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. New York: Viking, 1999.

Cantor, Norman F. Inventing the Middle Ages. New York: W. Morrow, 1991.

Munz, Peter. Frederick Barbarossa. London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1969.

Bradbury, Jim. Philip Augustus : King of France, 1180-1223. London; New York: Longman, 1998.

Reilly, Bernard F. The Medieval Spains. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

La Monte, John . The World of the Middle Ages; a Reorientation of Medieval History. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1949.

Popular pages: High Middle Ages (1000-1200)